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Key Words. Empire - a group of nations or peoples ruled over by an emperor, empress, or other powerful sovereign or government Bourgeoisie – The Middle Class Proletariat – Working Class. Control. Army Civil Service Church Okhrana Russification. Russification. 1898.

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Key words
Key Words

  • Empire - a group of nations or peoples ruled over by an emperor, empress, or other powerful sovereign or government

  • Bourgeoisie – The Middle Class

  • Proletariat – Working Class


Control
Control

  • Army

  • Civil Service

  • Church

  • Okhrana

  • Russification



1898

One of the Tsar’s ministers wrote to him in 1898 and said

‘Your Majesty has 130 million subjects. Of them barely half live, the rest vegetate’.


The backwardness of russian agriculture and industry
The Backwardness of Russian Agriculture and Industry

Behind Britain, Germany and France:

  • Lacked capital

  • Poor infrastructure

  • Labour force unskilled and illiterate

  • No domestic market




However
However...

  • Long hours, poor pay, high taxes.

  • Russian export – grain. Meant Russia’s peasants would often go hungry!

  • Industrialisation put added pressure onto those already living difficult lives.


My father and mother lived out their hard-working lives with some friction, but very happily on the whole. Of the eight children born of this marriage, four survived. I was the fifth in order of birth. Four died in infancy, of diphtheria and of scarlet fever, deaths almost as unnoticed as was the life of those who survived. The land, the cattle, the poultry, the mill took all my parent’s time. There was none left for us.We lived in a little mud house. The straw roof harboured countless sparrows’ nests under the eaves. The walls on the outside were seamed with deep cracks which were a breeding place for adders. The low ceilings leaked during a heavy rain, especially in the hall, and pots and basins would be placed on the dirt floor to catch the water. The rooms were small, the windows dim, the floors in the two rooms and the nursery were of clay and bred fleas. Leon Trotsky, My Life: An Attempt at an Autobiography.


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