Iii civilizations in crisis qing dynasty
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III. Civilizations in Crisis: Qing Dynasty. As Ming Dynasty began to decline, Manchu people of the north invaded 1644 – capture city of Beijing, took 20 years to take full control China Declared themselves Qing Dynasty

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Iii civilizations in crisis qing dynasty
III. Civilizations in Crisis:Qing Dynasty

  • As Ming Dynasty began to decline, Manchupeople of the north invaded

    • 1644 – capture city of Beijing, took 20 years to take full control China

  • Declared themselves Qing Dynasty

    • Retained much of the political system from Ming dynasty, including focus on Confucianism and the exam system

  • Social and economic changes were minimal

    • Further decline of women’s status (more feet-binding, infanticide)

    • Relaxed isolationist policies of Ming – opened ports, allowed travel

      • Growth of merchant class (compradors)

  • Corruption planted seeds of decline

    • Examination system failed – regional leaders were seen as corrupt

      • Government positions could be easily bought

    • Public works declined, famine and disease increased


  • Iii continued
    III. Continued…

    • European threat eroded Qing control

      • British began trading opium from India for Chinese goods

      • Chinese realized opium was a threat to society (but too late)

        • 1% of population addicted (4,000,000)

      • Opium Wars – (1839-1860) resulted in British taking control of Hong Kong as a trading port (controlled until 1990s)

    • Rebellions and conflicts add to Qing’s demise

      • Taiping Rebellion(1850) – led by Hong Xiuquan(self-proclaimed Christian prophet), sought to overthrow Qing rule and influence of Confucian scholar-gentry

        • Led to self-strengthening movement - led by regional leaders, modernized armies, factories, transportation


    Iii continued1
    III. Continued…

    • Boxer Rebellion – 1898 uprising intended to expel foreigners

      • Failure led to even greater control/influence by Europeans

  • End of the dynastic cycle

    • Revolutionaries from rising western-educated middle class sought to end Qing rule

      • Wanted to reorganize China based on western models/ideas

      • BUT, despised foreign involvement

    • 1911 – secret society uprisings, student demonstrations, and military mutinies erupted

      • Regional leaders refused to put down rebellions

      • 1912 – Last Qing emperor (Puyi) was removed


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