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III. Civilizations in Crisis: Qing Dynasty

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III. Civilizations in Crisis: Qing Dynasty. As Ming Dynasty began to decline, Manchu people of the north invaded 1644 – capture city of Beijing, took 20 years to take full control China Declared themselves Qing Dynasty

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iii civilizations in crisis qing dynasty
III. Civilizations in Crisis:Qing Dynasty
  • As Ming Dynasty began to decline, Manchupeople of the north invaded
    • 1644 – capture city of Beijing, took 20 years to take full control China
  • Declared themselves Qing Dynasty
      • Retained much of the political system from Ming dynasty, including focus on Confucianism and the exam system
  • Social and economic changes were minimal
    • Further decline of women’s status (more feet-binding, infanticide)
    • Relaxed isolationist policies of Ming – opened ports, allowed travel
      • Growth of merchant class (compradors)
  • Corruption planted seeds of decline
    • Examination system failed – regional leaders were seen as corrupt
      • Government positions could be easily bought
    • Public works declined, famine and disease increased
iii continued
III. Continued…
  • European threat eroded Qing control
    • British began trading opium from India for Chinese goods
    • Chinese realized opium was a threat to society (but too late)
      • 1% of population addicted (4,000,000)
    • Opium Wars – (1839-1860) resulted in British taking control of Hong Kong as a trading port (controlled until 1990s)
  • Rebellions and conflicts add to Qing’s demise
    • Taiping Rebellion(1850) – led by Hong Xiuquan(self-proclaimed Christian prophet), sought to overthrow Qing rule and influence of Confucian scholar-gentry
      • Led to self-strengthening movement - led by regional leaders, modernized armies, factories, transportation
iii continued1
III. Continued…
    • Boxer Rebellion – 1898 uprising intended to expel foreigners
      • Failure led to even greater control/influence by Europeans
  • End of the dynastic cycle
    • Revolutionaries from rising western-educated middle class sought to end Qing rule
      • Wanted to reorganize China based on western models/ideas
      • BUT, despised foreign involvement
    • 1911 – secret society uprisings, student demonstrations, and military mutinies erupted
      • Regional leaders refused to put down rebellions
      • 1912 – Last Qing emperor (Puyi) was removed
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