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AccessMonkey. A scripting framework for improving web accessibility Jeremy Brudvik Jessica Leung. Web Accessibility. Web accessibility means that people with disabilities can use the Web [1] Making sites efficiently usable for people with disabilities.

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Accessmonkey

AccessMonkey

A scripting framework for improving web accessibility

Jeremy Brudvik

Jessica Leung


Web accessibility
Web Accessibility

  • Web accessibility means that people with disabilities can use the Web[1]

  • Making sites efficiently usable for people with disabilities.

  • We are primarily concerned with web accessibility for blind people.

[1] http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/accessibility.php “Web Accessibility Initiative”


Blind people and computers
Blind people and computers

  • “Blind” isn’t defined equivalently in all contexts

    • We focus on people who use screen readers

  • Output

    • Screen readers

      • Converts visual information to linear display

      • Voiced visual content

      • Refreshable Braille displays

  • Input

    • Keyboard

    • (Virtually) No mouse


Web accessibility problems
Web Accessibility Problems

  • Images

  • Layout

    • Tables

  • Dynamic content

  • Mixing content and visual presentation

  • Poorly-named links

  • Flash, other multimedia




Why should people care
Why should people care?

  • Laws

    • Section 508 of the U.S. Rehabilitation Act

  • Lawsuits

    • NFB v. Target (2006)

    • Maguire v. SOCOG (1999)

  • Accessible websites have other benefits

    • Likely easier for sighted users to navigate

    • Search engines

  • In United States, 1.3 million legally blind people, and approx. 10 million visually impaired people [2]

[2] http://www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=15 American Foundation for the Blind: Blindness Statistics


Why aren t sites accessible
Why aren’t sites accessible?

  • People make uninformed decisions

    • Many developers don't think about blind people

    • Old technologies are still used, despite advances

  • Web design tools don’t always produce accessible content

  • Easy to incorporate accessibility from the beginning, difficult to redesign existing site

  • Browser compliance


Outline
Outline

  • Accessmonkey

  • Evaluation of Website Accessibility

  • NFB Youth Slam


Outline1
Outline

  • Accessmonkey

  • Evaluation of Website Accessibility

  • NFB Youth Slam


What are we doing
What are we doing?

  • Accessmonkey: A scripting framework for improving web accessibility



Accessmonkey1
Accessmonkey

  • Inspired by Greasemonkey

    • Greasemonkey allows users to modify web pages

  • Accessmonkey

    • Users modify pages without coding

    • Users share their improvements

    • Developers save users’ modifications

Accessmonkey


Accessmonkey issues
Accessmonkey: Issues

  • Security

    • Restrict the power of most user-submitted scripts

    • Allow unrestricted scripts after peer review

  • Deployment

    User Base

    Scripts

    • Multi-platform

      • Firefox

      • Internet Explorer

  • UI design


Accessmonkey progress
Accessmonkey: Progress

  • Met with blind people to discuss issues

  • Created suggestion form for website improvements

  • Specific page scripts

    • Association of Yale Alumni (AYA)

    • MyUW

    • Amazon

  • General scripts

    • Assign alt texts

    • Label headers


Original

Modified

AYA - Images Enabled


Original

Modified

AYA - Images Disabled


Original

Modified

MyUW - Styles Enabled


Original

Modified

MyUW - Styles Disabled


Original

Modified

MyUW - Styles Disabled


Original

Modified

MyUW - Styles Disabled




Outline2
Outline

  • Accessmonkey

  • Evaluation of Website Accessibility

  • NFB Youth Slam


Evaluation of accessibility
Evaluation of Accessibility

  • Existing Tools

  • Accessibility difficult to measure

    • Subjective and not quantifiable

    • Difficult to suggest specific improvements

  • What we can do is look at alt (alternative) text

    • General indicator of how the site is doing overall

    • Very specific and simple to implement



Outline3
Outline

  • Accessmonkey

  • Evaluation of Website Accessibility

  • NFB Youth Slam


Nfb youth slam
NFB Youth Slam

  • (National Federation of the Blind)

  • 1-week camp for blind high school students in Baltimore, MD

  • Taught students how to program instant messenger chatbots

[3] www.blindscience.org/ncbys/Youth_Slam.asp


Nfb youth slam1
NFB Youth Slam

In the Lab

Team

Exhibit Hall


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

  • SURP

  • NASA Space Grant

  • Professor Richard Ladner

  • Jeffrey Bigham

  • Maxwell Aller


Web studies all images
Web Studies: All Images !=

  • Significant images need alternative text

    • alt HTML attribute

  • Insignificant images need empty alt text

    • Decorative or structural

<img src=“graph.gif”

alt=“annual growth: 1982 to 2004”>

<img src=“images/spacer.gif”>

<img src=“images/spacer.gif” alt=“”>


Prioritization of problems
Prioritization of Problems

  • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 1.0

    • Identifies accessibility checkpoints for web developers

    • Separates checkpoints into 3 priorities

      • Priority 1 must be implemented, otherwise inaccessible

      • Priorities 2 and 3 are important for efficiency


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