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World War II. 18.1 The Outbreak of World War II. Nazi Expansion. March 1939 – Hitler’s armies occupied all of Czechoslovakia Hitler wants Polish city of Danzig = defies Munich Agreement Poles refuse to surrender city. Nazi Expansion. France & Britain

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World war ii

World War II

18.1 The Outbreak of World War II


Nazi expansion
Nazi Expansion

  • March 1939 – Hitler’s armies occupied all of Czechoslovakia

  • Hitler wants Polish city of Danzig

  • = defies Munich Agreement

  • Poles refuse to surrender city


Nazi expansion1
Nazi Expansion

  • France & Britain

  • Will go to war with Germany if Hitler attacks Poland

  • Hope for Soviet help against Nazis


Soviet nazi nonaggression pact
Soviet/Nazi Nonaggression Pact

  • August 23, 1939

  • Stalin & Hitler agree not to attack each other

  • Shocks the world since Stalin had been against fascism

  • Secretly agreed to divide Poland


War breaks out
War Breaks Out

  • Sept. 1, 1939

  • German armies invade Poland

  • Sept. 3, 1939

  • Britain & France declare war on Germany & become the Allied Powers

  • Soviet troops also invade eastern Poland and Finland

  • Poland conquered in less than 1 month


Presidential election 1940
Presidential Election / 1940

  • Roosevelt wins reelection for his unprecedented third term

  • Won by promising to keep America out of war

  • Secretly knew that American involvement was unavoidable


Lend lease act
Lend-Lease Act

  • War materials flowed between Britain & the US

  • Britain can’t pay for the supplies

  • Roosevelt proposed the US lend or lease the supplies to Britain

  • Later extended to Soviets

  • $50 billion shipped total

    • Us received land for military bases



German blitzkrieg
German Blitzkrieg

  • = The use of tanks, planes, paratroopers, and advanced communications to attack quickly and overwhelm ones opponent

  • Means “Lightning War”


France mobilizes falls
France Mobilizes & Falls

  • French troops mobilized on the Maginot Line

  • = Fortification on the southern border between Germany & France

  • Germans defeated Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, and Northern France


France mobilizes falls1
France Mobilizes & Falls

  • Germans – go around Maginot Line through Ardennes Forrest

  • Beat France in 1.5 Months

  • British forced off continent at Dunkirk

  • = Huge Failure

  • Germany established a “puppet” French government in the south at Vichy = Vichy Regime


Battle of britain
Battle of Britain

  • May 10, 1940:

  • Winston Churchill: elected PM of Britain

  • Britain stands alone against the Axis

  • Churchill opposed appeasement towards Hitler & continued fighting


Battle of britain1
Battle of Britain

  • August 1941

  • Massive, daily & nightly bombings of British cities by Luftwaffe (German Air Force)

  • German Goal: Break British will to fight; doesn’t work

  • British Royal Air Force used radar & destroyed more German planes


Operation barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa

  • July 1941

  • Need Oil – fuel for army

  • Hitler’s Generals against this

    • Hitler invades the Soviet Union

    • Violates their agreement; Soviets caught off guard

    • Two front war


Battle of the atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic

German U-Boats –

Continued to cause serious damage to Allied ships & supplies

Allies counteracted with –

Better sonar

Faster escort ships

Bombing of submarine shipyards

Nazis lost 783 U-Boats


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