Converging cultures
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Converging Cultures. The Migration to America; Chapter 1, Section 1. Early Migration to America. Earliest settlers unknown At least 10000 years ago (according to the book) Nomads – people who continually moved from place to place Gradual migration from Asia via a land bridge Bering Strait

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Converging cultures

Converging Cultures

The Migration to America; Chapter 1, Section 1


Early migration to america

Early Migration to America

  • Earliest settlers unknown

    • At least 10000 years ago (according to the book)

    • Nomads– people who continually moved from place to place

  • Gradual migration from Asia via a land bridge

    • Bering Strait

  • Migration continued south

    • Eventually spread through Central and South America


The bering strait

The Bering Strait


Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica

Early Civilizations of Mesoamerica


Agricultural revolution civilizations

Agricultural Revolution & Civilizations

  • Agricultural Revolution as early Americans learned how to plant & raise crops

    • Crops included pumpkins, peppers, squashes, gourds, beans

    • Most importantly Maize

      • Could be made into flour, which meant bread

      • Could be dried and stored

  • Made civilizations possible

    • A highly organized society marked by trade, government, the arts, science, and often a written language


Olmec

Olmec

  • 1500-300 BC

  • Possibly the first people to build a civilization in America

  • Established Teotihuacan

    • 1st large city

    • 300 BC-AD 650

    • Developed a large trade system

  • Also built huge monuments (8-foot heads)


Olmec head

Olmec Head


Converging cultures

Maya

  • AD 200-900 AD

  • Developed out of influence of Teotihuacan

  • Started in the Yucatan peninsula and expanded

  • Talent for engineering and mathematics

  • Complex and accurate calendars– linked to positions of stars

  • Built temple pyramids

  • 2 main cities Tikal and Chichen Itza

  • Warred like Greek city-states

  • Cities abandoned for unknown reason


Toltec

Toltec

  • Began building a city called Tula

  • People were master architects

  • Large pyramids with huge palaces

  • Among the first Native Americans to use gold and copper for art and jewelry

  • AD 1200– Tula fell to Chichimec invaders


Aztec

Aztec

  • 1325– Group of Chichimec called the Mexica established Tenochtitlan

  • Took the name Aztec

  • Military power

  • Human sacrifices, etc.

  • Came in contact with Europeans


North american cultures

North American Cultures

Early civilizations in North America


North american cultures1

North American Cultures

  • Mesoamerican agricultural technology probably spread north into the American Southwest and up the Mississippi River


Hohokam

Hohokam

  • Began around 300 AD

  • What is now south-central Arizona

  • Irrigation canals

    • Used Gila and Salt Rivers as water supply

    • Grew large crops

  • Flourished for 1,000 years

  • Vanished by 1500 AD


Anasazi

Anasazi

  • Formed b/t 700-900 AD

  • Began constructing big adobe buildings b/t 850-1100

    • Spanish called the structures pueblos

  • Also built cliff dwellings

  • Left the area between 1130-1270 AD


Eastern woodlands

Eastern Woodlands

  • Around the same time as the Olmec

  • Woodworking tools

    • Stone axes, gouges, dugout canoes

  • 1000 BC– Began to bury their dead under mounds


Adena and hopewell

Adena and Hopewell

  • Adena

    • Most important early mound culture

    • 1000 BC-AD 200

    • Ohio River Valley– Spread to New York and New England

  • Hopewell

    • Began b/t 200-100 BC

    • Also built big mounds

    • Began to decline 400 AD


Mississippian

Mississippian

  • B/t 700-900 AD in Mississippi River Valley

  • Great Builders

  • City of Cahokia

    • Covered about 5 square miles– 16,000 people

    • Pyramids, etc.

  • Monks Mound– Base is larger than any pyramid in Egypt or Mexico

  • Spread across the American South

    • Moundville, AL

  • Lasted until about 1300 AD


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