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Garratt – Chap 6. Scientific Revolution . Changing Idea: Scientific Method. Old Science. New Science. In time, scholars began to use observation, experimentation, & scientific reasoning to gather knowledge & draw conclusions about the physical world.

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Scientific Revolution

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Garratt chap 6

Garratt – Chap 6

Scientific Revolution


Changing idea scientific method

Changing Idea: Scientific Method

Old Science

New Science

In time, scholars began to use observation, experimentation, & scientific reasoning to gather knowledge & draw conclusions about the physical world

  • Scholars generally relied on ancient authorities, church teachings, common sense, and reasoning to explain the physical world


Medieval view

Medieval View

  • Before 1500 few challenged the ancient and medieval views about the world around them.

  • Ancient & Medieval World

    • Aristotle c. 300s – geocentric theory

    • Ptolemy expanded the theory

    • Christianity specifically taught that God had deliberately placed the sun at the center of the universe.


Scientific revolution

Scientific Revolution

  • By 1500s some scholars challenged these old assumptions.

  • New way of thinking about the natural world based on careful observation and a willingness to question accepted beliefs is known as the Scientific Rev (SR)


How did it begin

How did it begin?

  • Combination of discoveries & circumstances.

  • Exploration during Renaissance

    • Discoveries in the New World led to new truths

    • Suddenly there was a greater need for

      • navigational equipment,

      • Geographical equipment

      • All necessitated more research into astronomy, science and math

        Printing press


Copernicus heliocentric theory

Copernicus - Heliocentric Theory

  • Studied planetary movements for over 25 yrs

  • He reasoned but didn’t prove the helio theory

  • Feared the Catholic church so didn’t publish his work until on his deathbed


Kepler

Kepler

  • Proved Copernicus’ heliocentric theory mathematically

  • Showed that planets revolved around the sun in elliptical orbits.


Galileo

Galileo

  • Built his own telescope

    • Discovered that Jupiter had 4 moons

    • Sun has dark spots

  • Shattered Aristotle’s and the Church’s theory

  • His research supported Copernicus Simplicitus)

  • Stood trial before the Inquisition

  • Confessed and recanted

  • House arrest until death


Galileo inquisition house arrest

Galileo Inquisition & House Arrest


Scientific method

Scientific Method


Frances bacon

Frances Bacon

  • English statesman & author

  • Urged scientists to experiment and draw conclusions.

  • This approach is known as:

    • Empiricism or experimental approach


Descartes

Descartes

  • Developed analytical geometry which was new tool for scientific research

  • Approached research differently than Bacon

  • Rather than experimentation he relied on mathematical data & logic.

  • Believed everything should be doubted until proven

  • Only think he believed was that he existed.

  • “I think, therefore I am”


Isaac newton

Isaac Newton

  • Universal law of gravity

  • Every object in the universe attracts every other object

    • Degree of attraction is based on mass of objects and distance between them.

  • Saw universe as a giant clock which worked perfectly & could be explained mathematically.

  • Believed God was the clockmaker


Scientific instruments

Scientific Instruments

  • Janssen, 1590,1st microscope

  • Leeuwenhoek, 1670smicoscope

  • Torricelli, 1643Mercury barometer

  • FahrenheitThermomter

  • Celsius, 1742Thermometer


Medicine the human body

Medicine & the Human Body

  • Vasalius, 1543, dissected human corpse & provided 1st-hand drawings

  • Jenner, late 1700s, used cowpox to develop the world’s 1st vaccine.

  • Boyle, 1661, chemist who disproved Aristotle’s idea that the physical world consisted only of 4 elements.

  • Introduced Boyle’s law


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Reason, order, experimentation, mathematical proofs challenged old assumptions.

  • Philosophers now looked at the gov & the rights and liberties of individuals

  • Challenged the age-old relationship between citizens & gov

  • Ushered in a new period known as the Enlightenment.


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