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Garratt – Chap 6. Scientific Revolution . Changing Idea: Scientific Method. Old Science. New Science. In time, scholars began to use observation, experimentation, & scientific reasoning to gather knowledge & draw conclusions about the physical world.

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changing idea scientific method
Changing Idea: Scientific Method

Old Science

New Science

In time, scholars began to use observation, experimentation, & scientific reasoning to gather knowledge & draw conclusions about the physical world

  • Scholars generally relied on ancient authorities, church teachings, common sense, and reasoning to explain the physical world
medieval view
Medieval View
  • Before 1500 few challenged the ancient and medieval views about the world around them.
  • Ancient & Medieval World
    • Aristotle c. 300s – geocentric theory
    • Ptolemy expanded the theory
    • Christianity specifically taught that God had deliberately placed the sun at the center of the universe.
scientific revolution
Scientific Revolution
  • By 1500s some scholars challenged these old assumptions.
  • New way of thinking about the natural world based on careful observation and a willingness to question accepted beliefs is known as the Scientific Rev (SR)
how did it begin
How did it begin?
  • Combination of discoveries & circumstances.
  • Exploration during Renaissance
    • Discoveries in the New World led to new truths
    • Suddenly there was a greater need for
      • navigational equipment,
      • Geographical equipment
      • All necessitated more research into astronomy, science and math

Printing press

copernicus heliocentric theory
Copernicus - Heliocentric Theory
  • Studied planetary movements for over 25 yrs
  • He reasoned but didn’t prove the helio theory
  • Feared the Catholic church so didn’t publish his work until on his deathbed
kepler
Kepler
  • Proved Copernicus’ heliocentric theory mathematically
  • Showed that planets revolved around the sun in elliptical orbits.
galileo
Galileo
  • Built his own telescope
    • Discovered that Jupiter had 4 moons
    • Sun has dark spots
  • Shattered Aristotle’s and the Church’s theory
  • His research supported Copernicus Simplicitus)
  • Stood trial before the Inquisition
  • Confessed and recanted
  • House arrest until death
frances bacon
Frances Bacon
  • English statesman & author
  • Urged scientists to experiment and draw conclusions.
  • This approach is known as:
    • Empiricism or experimental approach
descartes
Descartes
  • Developed analytical geometry which was new tool for scientific research
  • Approached research differently than Bacon
  • Rather than experimentation he relied on mathematical data & logic.
  • Believed everything should be doubted until proven
  • Only think he believed was that he existed.
  • “I think, therefore I am”
isaac newton
Isaac Newton
  • Universal law of gravity
  • Every object in the universe attracts every other object
    • Degree of attraction is based on mass of objects and distance between them.
  • Saw universe as a giant clock which worked perfectly & could be explained mathematically.
  • Believed God was the clockmaker
scientific instruments
Scientific Instruments
  • Janssen, 1590, 1st microscope
  • Leeuwenhoek, 1670s micoscope
  • Torricelli, 1643 Mercury barometer
  • Fahrenheit Thermomter
  • Celsius, 1742 Thermometer
medicine the human body
Medicine & the Human Body
  • Vasalius, 1543, dissected human corpse & provided 1st-hand drawings
  • Jenner, late 1700s, used cowpox to develop the world’s 1st vaccine.
  • Boyle, 1661, chemist who disproved Aristotle’s idea that the physical world consisted only of 4 elements.
  • Introduced Boyle’s law
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Reason, order, experimentation, mathematical proofs challenged old assumptions.
  • Philosophers now looked at the gov & the rights and liberties of individuals
  • Challenged the age-old relationship between citizens & gov
  • Ushered in a new period known as the Enlightenment.
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