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Facilitating the development of an institutional model in Mzingwane Catchment Council. Some Lessons Emmanuel Manzungu Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, University of Zimbabwe. THREE CRITICAL QUESTIONS:. 1. Who are the water users?
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Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering,
University of Zimbabwe
1. Who are the water users?
2. How can the water users best be represented?
3. How to deal with representation at different scales:
b) sub-catchment council
c) catchment council
-Lower Mzingwane &
P A Chiefs
Rural Development Council
Chief (s) /Headman/men
-Irrigation scheme that uses water from ZINWA dam
-Irrigation scheme using water ‘illegally’
-Irrigation scheme using ZINWA-operated pumps (sand abstraction)
The exercise in THREE wards in Shashe produced the following categories of water users:
Makwe: Primary users (domestic, brickmakers, livestock owners), Irrigators,miners (large scale and panners)
Hwabayi: Primary users (domestic, brickmakers, builders, businesses, livestock owners), irrigators
Guyu: Primary users (domestic, gardeners, livestock owners, schools, businesses, Police, Army) irrigators
Categories of stakeholders across the wards
Primary water users
Rainfed farmers were mentioned but considered not to warrant a separate group
In what way are these different from the existing categories as captured by the top down approach?
THIS LIST OF STAKEHOLDERS WAS CONSIDERED TO BE OUT OF DATE
Current system as spelt out by statutory instrument – not known and unsuitable
Existing water points committees –rejected as ineffective
Traditional leaders - not welcome unless elected
Ward political councillors - not wanted
Dedicated water institution above water points committees
Representation by villages or ward?
‘Village’ was too small/unsuitable
Ward - most appropriate as it is the most common social organising principle
Therefore form a Ward Water Users Association (WWA).
WWA can be seen an extension of activities of what happens at a ward e.g. food distribution, elections, etc & hence is not a new institution
Effective Ward Water Users Committee means
a) Deciding on composition of the committee:
Base on agreed categories of stakeholders
Recall the following:
Primary users, irrigators, miners, others
Therefore at minimum have 3 members per ward according to main stakeholder groups
Committee can incorporate other stakeholders e.g. traditional leaders, ward councillor, local NGOs etc with no voting rights.
i) Subcatchment council accommodates 15 members and yet there are 72 wards in Shashe subcatchment (216 ward representatives is unworkable)
ii) Solution is to base representation on district (Shashe has 4 districts –let each of the 3 stakeholder group be represented = 12 ward representatives in subcatchment council
iii) Ward representatives in a district are an electoral college (or body of people who elect representatives from among themselves)
Remaining three slots can be occupied by other interests e.g. commercial farmers, large scale miners, town councils, tourist operator
The process did not go beyond the subcatchment level partly because
* everyone was tired.
* It was not unclear whether local people would want to engage
The meeting of subcatchment and catchment councilors convened in Bulawayo resolved the following:
-it endorsed the formation of Ward Water Users Associations
-agreed with the election procedures at ward and district level
-Current practice of four subcatchment council going to sit at the catchment council should be maintained.