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Life Science: Organisms. Genomics. “The genetic blueprints of all people generally have the same information, with approximately 99% of one human genome sequence being identical to all others. That makes the 1% of places in the genetic code that account for human variation very interesting…”

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Presentation Transcript
genomics
Genomics

“The genetic blueprints of all people generally have the same information, with approximately 99% of one human genome sequence being identical to all others. That makes the 1% of places in the genetic code that account for human variation very interesting…”

Momentum Winter 2006-2007, DNA Rubic

“Some geneticists have calculated the differences in human and chimpanzee DNA as just over 1%, some at 1.6%, and others at 1.8%.”

Momentum Winter 2006-2007, What we learn from Chimpanzees

genomics1
Genomics

Organism Genome size Number of genes

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sequenced_eukaryotic_genomes

http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/home.shtml

biological systems
Biological Systems

http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html

cell types
Cell types

The human embryonic stem cells cultured have been observed to randomly differentiate in culture into a variety of different cell types, including (A) gut, (B) neural cells, (C) bone marrow cells, (D) cartilage, (E) muscle and (F) kidney cells.

www.news.wisc.edu/packages/

stemcells/3327.html

a cell
A Cell

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animalcell.html

slide7
They are all the same cells –

They all have the same genetic material,

The only difference is what is turned on and what is silent.

central dogma http www accessexcellence org rc vl gg protein synthesis html
Central Dogmahttp://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/protein_synthesis.html
central dogma http www accessexcellence org rc vl gg protein synthesis html1
Central Dogmahttp://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/protein_synthesis.html
slide18
How do we measure it?

presence, concentration, activation state, etc. of specific biological molecules.

How do we measure the variations?

slide19
DNA
  • Sequencing
  • Genomic library
  • Genome sequencing
  • PCR
  • SNPs
  • Linkage analysis
life science
Life Science

http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/06_00/sequence_primer.shtml

life science1
Life Science

http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/06_00/sequence_primer.shtml

genome sequencing and display
Genome sequencing and Display

http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/06_00/sequence_primer.shtml

  • BAC-to-BAC method
  • whole genome shotgun sequencing

UCSC Genome Browser

  • http://genome.ucsc.edu/
microarray
Microarray

Probe hybridization

to DNA on chips

Probes bind to unique features on chips

Flourescent labels highlight bound probes

http://www.affymetrix.com

rnai rna silencing
RNAi : RNA silencing

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/gene/how_siRNA_works.htm

proteomics mass spectrometry
Proteomics: Mass Spectrometry

http://www.proteomesoftware.com/Proteome_software_ed_mass_spec.html

proteomics mass spectrometry http www academysavant com cmsp htm
Proteomics: Mass Spectrometryhttp://www.academysavant.com/cmsp.htm
slide33

Yeast 2 hybrid

used to measure

protein-protein

interactions.

life science4
Life Science

Flow of information

life science5
Life Science

Flow of information

ncbi derivative sequence data maureen j donlin st louis university
NCBI Derivative Sequence Data (Maureen J. Donlin, St. Louis University)

C

C

Curators

GA

ATT

GA

GA

C

ATT

GA

C

RefSeq

TATAGCCG

ACGTGC

TATAGCCG

AGCTCCGATA

CCGATGACAA

ATTGACTA

CGTGA

TTGACA

Labs

TTGACA

TTGACA

ACGTGC

Genome

Assembly

TATAGCCG

ACGTGC

TATAGCCG

ATTGACTA

CGTGA

CGTGA

ATTGACTA

TATAGCCG

CGTGA

ATTGACTA

ATTGACTA

TATAGCCG

TTGACA

ATTGACTA

TATAGCCG

TATAGCCG

TATAGCCG

TATAGCCG

ATT

C

GenBank

UniGene

GA

AT

GA

C

C

Algorithms

ATT

C

C

GA

ATT

GA

GA

ATT

GA

GA

ATT

C

GA

C

ATT

GA

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