WEAPONISATION OF SPACE
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WEAPONISATION OF SPACE AND THE INDIAN SPACE SECURITY ARCHITECTURE. GP CAPT RK SINGH. USI 13 JUN 2013. SEQUENCE OF PRESENTATION. INTRODUCTION CHINESE CAPABILITIES IN SPACE INDIAN VULNERABILITIES OPTIONS FOR INDIA INDIAN ASAT : THE NECESSITY INDIAN ASAT : THE URGENCY

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USI 13 JUN 2013

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Usi 13 jun 2013

WEAPONISATION OF SPACE

AND

THE INDIAN SPACE SECURITY ARCHITECTURE

GP CAPT RK SINGH

USI

13 JUN 2013


Sequence of presentation

SEQUENCE OF PRESENTATION

  • INTRODUCTION

  • CHINESE CAPABILITIES IN SPACE

  • INDIAN VULNERABILITIES

  • OPTIONS FOR INDIA

  • INDIAN ASAT : THE NECESSITY

  • INDIAN ASAT : THE URGENCY

  • INDIAN SPACE SECURITY ARCHITECTURE

  • CONCLUSION


Power transition theory

POWER TRANSITION THEORY

  • THE POWER TRANSITION THEORY WAS PROPOUNDED BY AFK ORGANSKI IN HIS BOOK “WORLD POLITICS” PUBLISHED IN 1958

  • IT IS A THEORY ABOUT THE CYCLICAL NATURE OF WAR, IN RELATION TO POWER IN THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS


Power transition theory by afk organski

POWER TRANSITION THEORYBY AFK ORGANSKI

“AN EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND MILITARY CAPABILITIES BETWEEN CONTENDING GROUPS OF STATES IS LIKELY TO INCREASE THE PROBABILITY OF WAR; PEACE IS PRESERVED BEST WHEN THERE IS AN IMBALANCE OF NATIONAL CAPABILITIES BETWEEN DISADVANTAGED AND ADVANTAGED NATIONS; THE AGGRESSOR WILL COME FROM A SMALL GROUP OF DISSATISFIED STRONG COUNTRIES; AND IT IS THE WEAKER, RATHER THAN THE STRONGER; POWER THAT IS MOST LIKELY TO BE THE AGGRESSOR”.


China s assertive engagement in the new world order

CHINA’S ASSERTIVE ENGAGEMENT IN THE NEW WORLD ORDER

HU JINTAO

PRESIDENT

PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

“THE FUTURE AND DESTINY OF CONTEMPORARY CHINA IS MORE AND MORE CLOSELY LINKED TO THE FUTURE AND DESTINY OF THE WORLD. CHINA’S DEVELOPMENT CANNOT BE DONE WITHOUT THE WORLD, AND THE WORLD’S DEVELOPMENT NEEDS CHINA.”


China s peaceful rise the impact

CHINA’S PEACEFUL RISE : THE IMPACT

  • ECONOMICALLY STRONG (MORE THAN

    3 TRILLION $ FOREIGN RESERVE)

  • FRANTIC PACE OF MODERNISATION OF PLA

  • NUCLEAR POWER (WITH NO EMBARGO – NFU CLAUSE MISSING FROM WHITE PAPER 2013)

  • ASAT TESTS

  • MODERNISATION OF SUBMARINE FLEET

  • INDUCTION OF STEALTH AIRCRAFTS

  • INDUCTION OF AIRCRAFT CARRIER LIAONING

  • MILITARY BUILD UP IN ‘TAR’ AGAINT INDIA

  • SHIFTING CORE INTERESTS


The shifting pivot

THE SHIFTING PIVOT

  • THE PEACEFUL RISE OF CHINA

    • ECONOMIC

    • TECHNOLOGICAL

    • MILITARY

  • WORLD-WIDE ECONOMIC REACH

  • RETURN OF ‘MIDDLE KINGDOM’ SYNDROME

  • THE “PACIFIC PIVOT”

  • COUNTER-BALANCING “ PACIFIC PIVOT ”

  • THE RESULTANT TURBULENCE IN ASIA


The turbulence in asia

THE TURBULENCE IN ASIA

  • REGION WITH INTENSE ACTIVITY

    • ECONOMIC

    • MILITARY

    • DIPLOMATIC

  • REGION WITH INTENSE COMPETITION

  • COMPETITION LEADING TO CONFRONTATION : CHINA’S HEGEMONY

    • CHINA vs JAPANMARITIME

    • CHINA vs VIETNAMDIAOYU/SENKAKU

    • CHINA vs PHILLIPINES SCARBOROUGH SHOAL

    • CHINA vs BRUNEI SPRATLY ISLANDS

    • CHINA vs MALAYSIAPARACEL ISLANDS

    • CHINA vs TAIWAN

    • CHINA VS INDIATERRITORIAL


Senkaku diaoyu

SENKAKU/DIAOYU


Usi 13 jun 2013

THE SHOW OF STRENGTH

OVER

SENKAKU / DIAOYU


You ve crossed the border please go back

“YOU'VE CROSSED THE BORDER, PLEASE GO BACK”


The four tent strategy

THE FOUR TENT STRATEGY

7


Chinese philosphy of modern war

CHINESE PHILOSPHY OF MODERN WAR

‘WINNING BEFORE FIGHTING’

GAINING INFORMATION ADVANTAGE IN WAR THROUGH APPLICATION OF SPACE TECHNOLOGIES

C4I2SR


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“THE SPACE OF OPERATIONS BECOMES ALL-DIMENSIONAL AND MILITARY ACTION WILL BE CONDUCTED SIMULTANEOUSLY IN MANY FIELDS, ON LAND, IN THE AIR, IN OUTER SPACE AND IN THE ELECTRONIC FIELD.”

General Fu Quanyou

Chief of General Staff

People’s Liberation Army

20 Feb 1999


Usi 13 jun 2013

CHINESE MILITARY CAPABILITIES

IN

SPACE


Asat tests by china

ASAT TESTS BY CHINA

  • ASAT TEST OF 2007

  • MID COURSE INTERCEPTION TEST IN 2010 WHICH WAS RE-VALIDATION OF ASAT TEST

  • REUTERS REPORTED ON 13 MAY 2013 “CHINA FIRES ROCKET CAPABLE OF TARGETING SATELLITES”

    • ROCKET LIFTED OFF FROM THE XICHANG SATELLITE LAUNCH CENTER AND REACHED A 6,200-MILE ALTITUDE, THE HIGHEST CHINESE SUBORBITAL FLIGHT IN 37 YEARS, SAID JONATHAN MCDOWELL OF THE HARVARD-SMITHSONIAN CENTER FOR ASTROPHYSICS.

    • CAPABLE OF DELIVERING AN ASAT WEAPON


Usi 13 jun 2013

  • JONATHAN MCDOWELL FURTHER STATED THAT

    “THIS CHINESE ROCKET WAS A GROUND-BASED MISSILE THAT WE BELIEVE WOULD BE THEIR FIRST TEST OF AN INTERCEPTOR THAT WOULD BE DESIGNED TO GO AFTER A SATELLITE THAT'S ACTUALLY ON ORBIT”

  • CAPABILITY TO TARGET SATELLITES EVEN IN MEO / HEO


Chinese space weapons programmes

CHINESE SPACE WEAPONS PROGRAMMES

• ASAT LASERS

• CO-ORBITAL ASAT

  • BALLISTIC MISSILE

    •MANIPULATION OF SATELLITE

    • NETWORK ATTACK

    • BROAD SPECTRUM AND NARROW FREQUENCY JAMMING OF SATELLITE

  • SPACE MINING

  • EMP ASAT

  • TIANGONG-1 SPACE SHIP – UTILITY FOR A MILITARY BASE


Co orbital asat bx 1 micro satellite aboard shenzhou 7

CO-ORBITAL ASAT : BX-1 MICRO-SATELLITE ABOARD SHENZHOU -7 .


Implications for india

IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIA

STRATEGIC

  • THREAT TO NATIONAL SECURITY

  • LIKELIHOOD OF ASIAN SPACE RACE

    TACTICAL

  • THREAT TO SPACE ASSETS


  • Usi 13 jun 2013

    • SPACE THEREFORE, WHETHER WE REALIZE IT OR NOT, HAS STARTED TO PLAY AN INCREASINGLY IMPORTANT ROLE IN MILITARY PLANNING & OPERATIONS

    • THE ULTIMATE “ HIGH GROUND ”

    • THE RMA IN 21 ST CENTURY


    Options for india

    OPTIONS FOR INDIA


    Militarisation of space

    MILITARISATION OF SPACE

    THE INDIAN PERSPECTIVE

    • ISR

    • SECURE MILITARY COMMUNICATION

    • EARLY WARNING

    • NAVIGATION AND POSITIONING

    • TARGETING FOR PRECISION WEAPONS

    • SURVEYING AND MAPPING FOR MIL OPS

    • RADAR IMAGING FOR SURVEILLANCE

    • METEOROLOGICAL SUPPORT FOR TACTICAL OPERATIONS


    Why weaponisation

    WHY WEAPONISATION ?

    • INDIAN SPACE PROGRAMME HAS BEEN MAINLY FOR DEVELOPING CIVILIAN SPACE APPLICATIONS

    • HOWEVER CHINA’S AGGRESSIVE POSTURING AGAINST INDIA NECESSITATES REVIEW OF SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF OUR SPACE ASSETS AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPACE WEAPONS TO PROTECT THEM


    Usi 13 jun 2013

    • CHINA WORKING ON ‘INFORMATIONALISED WARFARE’

    • DEPENDENCY ON SATELLITE BASED TECHNOLOGIES

    • HENCE INDIAN ASAT WILL BE THE MOST POTENT WEAPON FOR DETERRENCE AGAINST CHINA


    Usi 13 jun 2013

    IN JANUARY 2010, DR SARASWAT THE HEAD OF DRDO TOLD REPORTERS, “INDIA IS PUTTING TOGETHER BUILDING BLOCKS OF TECHNOLOGY THAT COULD BE USED TO NEUTRALIZE ENEMY SATELLITES. WE ARE WORKING TO ENSURE SPACE SECURITY AND PROTECT OUR SATELLITES. AT THE SAME TIME WE ARE ALSO WORKING ON HOW TO DENY THE ENEMY ACCESS TO ITS SPACE ASSETS.”


    The case for indian asat weapon

    THE CASE FOR INDIAN ASAT WEAPON

    NECESSARY

    AND

    URGENT


    Necessity

    NECESSITY

    • IMPENDING CHINESE THREAT – NECESSITATES A CREDIBLE DETERRENCE

    • WEAPONISATION IS INESCAPABLE FOR INDIA TOWARDS SECURING ITS NATIONAL INTEREST

    • ASAT WEAPONS : THE ONLY WAY AHEAD FOR INDIA TO GAIN ASYMETRIC ADVANTAGE OVER CHINA

  • AVAILABILITY OF ASAT TECH

    • AGNI – V (FOR ASAT ROLE)

    • SATELLITES (FOR CO-ORBITAL BOMBARDMENT)


  • Agni v a game changer for development of indian asat

    AGNI – V : A GAME CHANGER FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN ASAT

    • IN THE WORDS OF DR VK SARASWAT, DG DRDO :

      “AGNI-V’S LAUNCH HAS USHERED IN FANTASTIC OPPURTUNITIES IN BUILDING ASAT WEAPONS AND LAUNCHING NANO / MICRO SATELLITES ON DEMAND.”

    • ASAT WOULD INCLUDE MARRYING AGNI-V’S PROPULSION SYSTEM WITH THE KILL VEHICLE (AAD) OF THE OF THE SUCCESSFUL II-TIER BMD SYSTEM

    • AN ASAT IS REQUIRES

      • TO REACH AN ALTITUDE OF 800 KM -- AGNI-V WILL GIVE THE BOOSTING CAPABILITY

      • “KILL VEHICLE”-- AAD WITH ADVANCE SEEKERS, WILL BE ABLE TO HOME INTO THE TARGET SATELLITE


    Usi 13 jun 2013

    • DR SARASWAT- INDIA WILL NOT TEST ASAT CAPABILITY THROUGH DESTRUCTION OF A SAT TO AVOID SPACE DEBRIS

    • ASAT CAPABILITY WOULD BE FINE TUNED THROUGH SIMULATED ELECTRONIC TESTS

    • VISIBLE DETRRENCE IS A CREDIBLE DETERRENCE

    • LEO ASAT TEST BY INDIA : A FEASIBLE OPTION


    Urgency for weaponisation of space by india

    URGENCY FOR WEAPONISATION OF SPACE BY INDIA

    • IN 2008 EU PROPOSED CoC FOR OUTER SPACE

    • IN JUN 2010 US INDICATED PROPOSING A NEW TREATY FOR RESTRICTIONS ON SPACE BASED WEAPONS

    • EU SPONSORED CoC IN 2012 (REVIEW)

    • CoC IS BEING DEBATED IN UN BY GGE AND LIKELY TO BE RATIFIED IN 2013-14

    • CoC IS SEEN AS A PRECURSOR FOR A RESTRICTIVE REGIME FOR ASAT WEAPONS

    • CASE ANALOGOUS TO NPT


    Usi 13 jun 2013

    • THUS A NEW RESTRICTIVE REGIME ON SPACE WEAPONS IS LIKELY TO FOLLOW

    • FORECLOSE INDIA’S OPTION FOR TESTING ASAT CAPABILTY

    • A CASE SIMILAR TO NUCLEAR APARTHIED

    • HENCE THE URGENCY


    The way ahead

    THE WAY AHEAD

    • INDIAN SPACE PROGRAMME NO MATCH TO CHINESE PROGRAMME

    • INDIA SHOULD GO IN FOR ASAT TECHNOLOGY FOR A POTENT AND A CREDIBLE DETERRENCE AGAINST CHINA TO GAIN ASSYMETRIC ADVANTAGES

    • WORK TOWARDS CREATING AN

      “INDIAN SPACE SECURITY ARCHITECTURE”


    Indian space security architecture

    INDIAN SPACE SECURITY ARCHITECTURE

    INDIA’S MILITARY REQUIREMENT IN SPACE

    FOR 21 ST CENTURY


    India s space security architecture

    OFFENSIVE COMPONENT

    • KINETIC KILL ENERGY (KKE) ASAT

    • CO-ORBITAL ASAT

    • LASER ASAT SYSTEM

    • CRUISE MISSILES

    • IRBM (AGNI V/VI)

    • SPACE MINING : SINGLE ROCKET MULTIPLE SATELLITE LAUNCH

      (MICRO/NANO/PICO)

    INDIA’S SPACE SECURITY ARCHITECTURE


    India s space security architecture1

    DEFENSIVE COMPONENT

    • RISAT FOR SURVEILLANCE

    • IRNSS FOR PNT

    • GAGAN FOR AIR SPACE SURVEILLANCE AND MANAGEMENT

    • CCI-SAT FOR C4 COMPONENT OF C4ISR

    • NAVAL SAT FOR INT &TACTICAL COMMN

    • DCN FOR SECURE COMMN

    • ROBUST SSA NETWORK

    • BMD (THREE TIER) FOR AIR DEFENCE

    INDIA’S SPACE SECURITY ARCHITECTURE


    Conclusion

    CONCLUSION

    • OFFENCE IS THE BEST DEFENCE

    • DEMONSTRATED DETERRENCE IS A CAPABLE DETERRENCE (NECESSITY)

    • INDIA’S KKE ASAT : FOR STRATEGIC BALANCE IN ASIAN SPACE (URGENCY)


    India s

    INDIA’S

    OFFENSIVE SPACE CAPABILITIES WILL ENSURE

    A CREDIBLE AND A POTENT DETERRENCE AGAINST CHINA


    Usi 13 jun 2013

    A SECURE AEROSPACE FOR INDIA TO PROTECT ITS NATIONAL INTEREST AND PROPEL ITS ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES WAY BEYOND THE 21 ST CENTURY, THEREBY MAKING INDIA

    ‘A LEADING WORLD POWER’


    Usi 13 jun 2013

    THANKS

    !!!


    Risat i

    • LAUNCED ON 11 APRIL 2012

    • SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR

    • 24X7 DAY AND NIGHT

    • ALL WEATHER CAPABILTY

    • DAILY ROUTINE OF 14 ORBITS WITH A REPETITIVE CYCLE OF 25 DAYS

    • RESOLUTION OF UP TO 1 M

    • SURVEILLANCE

    RISAT-I


    Dedicated naval satellite

    • FIRST DEDICATED MILITARY SATELLITE (GSAT-7 OR INSAT-4F)

    • COMBINED NAVAL COMSAT AND NAVAL SURVEILLANCE MISSION

    • TO COVER A SWATH OF ABOUT 1,000 NAUTICAL MILES OVER THE INDIAN OCEAN

    • WILL GREATLY ENHANCE THE INDIAN NAVY’S C4ISR CAPABILITY

    DEDICATED NAVAL SATELLITE


    Usi 13 jun 2013

    • WILLPROVIDE COMMUNICATION NETWORK FOR SEAMLESS FLOW OF INFORMATION

    • ISOLATED FROM THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)

    • ACCESS DATA GENERATED FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES & ASSETS

    • WILL LINK EVERY ASPECT OF MILITARY OPERATION TO A SINGLE POINT OF CONFLUENCE

    • WILL GIVE THE THEATRE CDR A WIDE, ACCURATE & HOLISTIC OVERVIEW OF THE BATTLEFIELD SCENARIO


    Communication centric intelligence sat cci sat

    • FIRST COMMUNICATIONS CENTRIC INTELLIGENCE SATELLITE (CCI-SAT) IS PLANNED FOR LAUNCH IN 2014

    • BEING BUILT BY THE DEFENSE ELECTRONIC RESEARCH LABORATORY

    • A PART OF A LARGER DEVELOPMENT FOR MILITARY INTELLIGENCE ENHANCEMENT UTILIZING ADVANCED ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEMS CAPABILITY

    COMMUNICATION CENTRIC INTELLIGENCE-SATCCI-SAT


    Gps aided geo augmented navigation gagan

    • THE FIRST STEP TOWARDS INTRODUCTION OF MODERN COMMUNICATION,NAVIGATION, SURVEILLANCE/AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OVER INDIAN AIRSPACE

    • INVOLVES ESTABLISHMENT OF

      • 15 INDIAN REFERENCE STATIONS

      • 03 INDIAN NAVIGATION LAND UPLINK STATIONS

      • 03 INDIAN MISSION CONTROL CENTERS

      • INSTALLATION OF ALL ASSOCIATED SOFTWARE AND COMMUNICATION LINKS

    GPS-AIDED GEO-AUGMENTED NAVIGATION (GAGAN)


    Gagan

    • WILL INCREASE SAFETY BY USING 3 D APPROACH OPERATION WITH COURSE GUIDANCE TO THE RUNWAY

    • HIGH POSITION ACCURACIES OVER INDIAN AIRSPACE

    • PROVIDES A THREE-METRE ACCURACY

    • POSITIONAL ACCURACIES WILL BE SIMULTANEOUSLY AVAILABLE TO 80 CIVILIAN AND MORE THAN 200 NON-CIVILIAN AIRPORTS AND AIRFIELDS PLANNED (EVENTUALLY 500 AIRFIELDS)

    GAGAN


    Area of coverage gagan

    AREA OF COVERAGE : GAGAN


    Indian regional navigation satellite system irnss

    • REGIONAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM

    • WOULD PROVIDE TWO SERVICES

      • STANDARD POSITIONING SERVICE OPEN FOR CIVILIAN USE

      • RESTRICTED SERVICE (ENCRYPTED ONE) ONLY FOR AUTHORISED USERS (MILITARY)

    • MISSILE TARGETING COULD BE AN IMPORTANT MILITARY APPLICATION FOR THE CONSTELLATION

    INDIAN REGIONAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM (IRNSS)


    Indian regional navigation satellite system irnss1

    • 07 SATELLITES CONSTELLATION

    • 03 SATELLITES WILL BE IN GEO OVER THE INDIAN OCEAN AND 04 IN GSO

    • ALL 07 SATELLITES WOULD HAVE CONTINUOUS RADIO VISIBILITY WITH INDIAN CONTROL STATIONS.

    • SATELLITE PAYLOADS WOULD CONSIST OF ATOMIC CLOCKS AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT TO GENERATE THE NAVIGATION SIGNALS

    INDIAN REGIONAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM (IRNSS)


    Irnss architecture

    IRNSS ARCHITECTURE


    Space serveillance network sats for ssa

    • SATS EQUIPPED WITH RADARS

      • ENSURE LAUNCH DETECTS, TRACKS, MEASURES AND CATALOGS ORBITING OBJECTS AND SPACE DEBRIS

      • IMPROVED ACCURACY

      • BETTER TIMELINESS

      • INCREASED SURVEILLANCE COVERAGE FOR BETTER SPACE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS TO SECURE SPACE AS “GLOBAL COMMON”

    SPACE SERVEILLANCE NETWORK SATS FOR SSA


    Defence communication network

    • SECURE DEFENCE COMN THROUGH DEDICATED COMN SATELLITES

    • NETWORK OF NETWORKS (COMN OF ARMY, NAVY AND AF WILL BE LINKED TO FORM A SECURE DEFENCE COMMUNICATION NETWORK)

    • FIRST PRIVATE – PUBLIC PARTNERSHIP PROJECT

    • 129 ARMY, 162 AF AND 33 NAVAL STATIONS WILL BE LINKED

    DEFENCE COMMUNICATION NETWORK


    Multi tiered micro sat constellaton

    • LESS VULNERABLE TO ENEMY ATTACK

    • NO ROOM FOR SINGLE POINT FAILURES

    • PLACED AT SEVERAL ALTITUDES

    • WELL DISPERSED

    • SIGNIFICANT LEVEL OF REDUNDANCY

    • REPLACEMENT AT SHORT NOTICE QUICK RE-LAUNCH

    • AFFORDABLE REPLACEMENTS

    MULTI-TIERED MICRO-SAT CONSTELLATON


    New perspective

    RE-ALIGNMENT OF SPACE ACTIVITIES AND RE-STRUCTURING OF ORGANIZATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH NATIONAL SECURITY

    NEW PERSPECTIVE


    Suggestions

    • REPRESENTATION OF ARMED FORCES IN THE SPACE COMMISSION

    • NEW SPACE DOCTRINE FOR MINISTRY OF DEFENCE

    • INTEGRATED SPACE COMMAND

    • CREATION OF SPACE FORCE FOR CONDUCT OF SPACE OPERATIONS

    • TRAINING OF SPACE FORCE PERSONNEL

    • STRONG TIME BOUND SPACE R&D

    SUGGESTIONS


    Usi 13 jun 2013

    • DEVELOPMENT OF DEMONSTRATION OF INDIAN ASAT CAPABILITY  

    • USE OF FOREIGN SATELLITES AS DEFENSIVE STRATEGY

    • ELECTRONIC WARFARE (EW) AND CYBER ATTACK.

    • QUICK LAUNCH / MOBILE LAUNCH CAPABILITY.

    • SPACE SECURITY TREATY FOR NON-OFFENSIVE USE OF SPACE.


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