Earthquakes. Source: USGS. Source: NPS. Seismic Hazard. Source: USGS. California Tectonics: Present. Source: USGS. California Tectonics: Past. http:// www.nps.gov/prsf/naturescience/images/Subduction-animation_1.gif. What Is An Earthquake?.
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What Is An Earthquake?
Measure the difference in arrival of ____________ waves.
2. Use a graph to determine the ______________ from the monitoring station to the epicenter.
Draw a circle, centered around the monitoring station with a radius _________ to the distance from the epicenter.
Repeat two more times.
5. The point where all three circles intersect is the location of the ______________.
Felt by very few people; barely noticeable
Felt by a few people, especially on upper floors.
Noticeable indoors, especially on upper floors, but may not be recognized as an earthquake. Hanging objects swing.
Felt by many indoors, by few outdoors. May give the impression of a heavy truck passing by.
Felt by almost everyone, some people awakened. Small objects move. Trees and poles may shake.
Felt by everyone. Difficult to stand. Some heavy items of furniture move, plaster falls. Slight damage to chimneys possible.
Slight to moderate damage in well-built, ordinary structures. Considerable damage to poorly built structures. Some walls may fall.
Little damage in specially built structures. Considerable damage to ordinary buildings, severe damage to poorly built structures. Some walls collapse.
Considerable damage to specially built structures, buildings shifted off foundations. Noticeable cracks in ground. Wholesale destruction. Landslides.
Most masonry and frame structures and their foundations destroyed. Ground badly cracked. Landslides. Wholesale destruction.
Total damage. Few, if any, structures standing. Bridges destroyed. Wide cracks in ground. Waves seen on ground.
Total damage. Waves seen on ground. Objects thrown up into air.
Niigata Earthquake, Japan, 1964:
Tilting of apartment buildings
Asian Earthquake and Tsunami of 2004What Happened and Why?
Magnitude 9 earthquake
What, besides earthquakes, can cause a tsunami?
Hayward – Rodgers Creek Faults have the highest probabilities
Forecasting (probability) vs. prediction