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The Argumentative Essay United States History. Mt. Lebanon High School 2014-2015. An argument is….

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The argumentative essay united states history

The Argumentative EssayUnited States History

Mt. Lebanon High School

2014-2015


An argument is
An argument is…

The reasonable, educated opinion of a writer that establishes a claim and offers evidence to prove it while mediating the opposition.



1 state a position take a side
1. State a position (take a side!)

QUESTION: Has the technology of the 21st century produced more benefit or harm for Americans?


2 argue your viewpoint why how
2. Argue your viewpoint (WHY? HOW?)

QUESTION: Has the technology of the 21st century produced more benefit or harm for Americans?


3 offer a concession yes but
3. Offer a concession (Yes, but)

QUESTION: Has the technology of the 21st century produced more benefit or harm for Americans?


The concession a yes but statement
The concession: a “yes, but” statement

YES, I acknowledge my opposition has concerns,

BUT my position shows

  • where that argument falls short

  • The limitations of my agreement

  • Why my position is more reasonable

  • …phones can be a distraction and harmful

YES:

  • …there are many social and economic benefits for Americans…

BUT:


Concession statements
Concession statements

  • Concede some of the opposition's concerns.

    • Consider what you might have used as support for your argument if you had chosen the other side

    • To signal the contrast between the opposition's argument and yours, it uses words like

      though, however, on the other hand, by contrast, yet, although, but, granted, naturally, of course, admittedly, naturally, or although it is true that.

      • Does not constitute an argument equal in size or scope to your own

    • Concessions must appear EITHERin each body paragraphorin a separate paragraph.


Thesis statement
Thesis statement

  • Present a clear, concise, argumentative thesis that takes a side on the question.

    • Take a clear position on the question (Yes or no, Agree or disagree, It did or it didn’t)

    • Include an argumentative statement of WHY you agree or disagree, WHY yes or no, WHY it did or didn’t.

  • The thesis statement must include a reference to your concession statements in an effort to transition to your argument.


Analytical argument
Analytical Argument:

QUESTION: Has the technology of the 21st century produced more benefit or harm for Americans?

THESIS: Although phones can be a distraction and harmful, there are many social and economic benefits for Americans because of the new technology.


Identify the parts analytical argument
Identify the parts: Analytical Argument

QUESTION: Has the technology of the 21st century produced more benefit or harm for Americans?

THESIS: Though sophisticated electronic devices can certainly pose a distraction, Americans have undoubtedly benefited from 21st century technology because of the vast personal and national economic advantages that have accompanied those developments.


Identify the parts analytical argument1
Identify the parts: Analytical Argument

Question: Has the technology of the 21st century produced more benefit or harm for Americans?

CONCESSION

  • Though sophisticated electronic devices can certainly pose a distraction,

POSITION

  • Americans have undoubtedly benefited from 21st century technology

  • because of the vast personal and national economic advantages that have accompanied those developments.

ARGUMENT


Introduction
Introduction

  • Introduce the topic; set the topic in the greater scope of history.

    • What is the context?

      • What preceded this topic historically?

      • How has this topic evolved from others like it?

      • What other events precipitated this topic?

    • 4-5 sentences

  • Transition clearly to the question.

  • Present clear, concise, argumentative thesis that takes a side on the question and concedes some of the opposition's concerns.


Introduce

Transition

At the end of the 20th century, most Americans did not have a personal cellular telephone, and though many of them likely had a personal computer, they were not likely using it much for accessing the World Wide Web. Today, though, many Americans hardly take a step without their smartphone.

Individual Americans and the country as a whole have been affected by these advances. For some, constant access to screen time has been a distraction and even a menace, while for others, it has increased personal efficiency and produced an economic explosion.

Though the dangers of 21st century technology often garner more media attention,

Thesis:

Concession

these advances have been undoubtedly beneficial for Americans

Position

because of the flexibility they afford individuals as well as the measurable growth they have spurred in the national economy.

Argument


The body paragraphs
The Body Paragraphs

CONTENT

Include carefully selected details that advance the argument

Include at least three different major topics, supported by 2-3 examples each

Concede the opponents concerns EITHERin a paragraph, or throughout the ¶s.

ANALYSIS

  • Use topic sentences to tie to the argument of the thesis

  • Discuss the significance of each example in relation to the topic sentence

  • Explain why these concerns aren’t as valid as the position of the argument.


Topic Sentence

Evidence

Con-cession

Today’s technological advances offer the majority of individual Americans vast improvements in their personal and work lives because of potential increases in productivity, flexibility, and efficiency.

Analysis

One of the primary benefits of technology for individual Americans is the ability to work from home, or to telecommute. In 2006 approximately 6.6% of the workforce worked from home on their primary job, but projections indicate that by 2016, that number could reach a staggering 43%.

Admittedly, without strong personal motivation, there is great potential for a worker at home to become distracted and less productive than his traditional colleague,

but studies consistently show that the majority of workers are actually more fruitful than their on-site counterparts. This is largely due to workers’ general feelings of satisfaction with jobs that help them with the work-life balance. When workers are able to stay on top of email via smartphone at the grocery store, collaborate online with peers on the sidelines of a soccer game, and still manage the demands of a family, it stands to reason that both would experience greater capacity for accomplishing tasks.


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • Restate the thesis statement.

  • Review the basis of your argument (briefly summarize the why element of your thesis as supported by the topics of your body paragraphs.)

  • Put the topic into the greater context of history.

    • What follows this topic historically?

    • How have other topics evolved from this one?

    • What other events did this topic cause?

    • What might the impact of this topic be on the future?


Thesis, restated

Review the argument

Despite often getting a bad reputation in the media, 21st century technology has allowed Americans more flexibility in their personal and work lives and has created economic benefits for America and for Americans.

Historical context

With the introduction of faster, smaller, and stronger devices, we are able to use our time more productively both at home and at work. Additionally, many Americans are finding lucrative work in the industries that create, manufacture, and support those very devices.

Both of these beneficial effects of 21st century technology show no signs of slowing down. It seems that few things we do today are not in some way connected to a modern technological device. The explosive growth of technology in the last decade seems to suggest that the science-fiction books and cartoons of the recent past may not be so far off base. In fact, many of Ray Bradbury’s predictions in Fahrenheit 451—earbuds, wall-sized televisions—have already come to pass, thus we will not likely have to wait long to see a society eerily reminiscent of the Jetsons, all to the benefit of Americans.


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