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NF1: Tumor Suppressor Gene. Presentation by Hana Masood. Overview of Presentation. Disease – Neurofibromatosis Type I NF1 Gene Protein - Neurofibromin Protein Function – RasGAP Biological Role – Active in Ras Pathway NF1 gene and Neurofibromin Role in Cancer. Neurofibromatosis Type I.

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Nf1 tumor suppressor gene

NF1: Tumor Suppressor Gene

Presentation by

Hana Masood


Overview of presentation
Overview of Presentation

  • Disease – Neurofibromatosis Type I

  • NF1 Gene

  • Protein - Neurofibromin

  • Protein Function – RasGAP

  • Biological Role – Active in Ras Pathway

  • NF1 gene and Neurofibromin Role in Cancer


Neurofibromatosis type i
Neurofibromatosis Type I

  • Among most common neurogenetic disorders

    -It is heritable; all affected members of family have same form of NF

  • Affects 1 in 3,500

  • Whereas NF2 affects only 1 in 40,000

  • Diagnosis based on any 2 of the following clinical criteria:

    - Greater than or equal to 6 café-au-lait spots

    - Freckles underarm or groin

    - Greater than or equal to 2 neurofibromas, or 1 plexiform neurofibroma

    - Iris Lisch nodules identified by ophthalmologist

    - Tumor of optic nerve called optic pathway glioma (in astrocytes)

    - Bone deformities (i.e. around eye, tibia)

    - First degree relative (parent, sibling, or child)

http://www.understandingnf1.org/id/int_id_win.html


Neurofibromatosis type i1

Affects peripheral nerves brain, and spinal cord

More active as get older

In adolescence, also find learning disabilities in reading, math, trouble following directions, and paying attention

All racial and ethnic backgrounds

Symptoms vary person to person

Neurofibromatosis Type I

European Genetics Foundation

http://www.charite.de/ch/medgen/eumedis/embryology04/neurocutan-disorders.html

http://www.understandingnf1.org/exp/int_exp_wcn.html


Nf1 gene

NF1 is a tumor suppressor gene

NF1 is located on Chromosome 17 long arm

- NF2 on other hand is located on Chromosome 22

NF1 gene encodes the protein Neurofibromin

NF1 Gene

http://www.charite.de/ch/medgen/eumedis/embryology04/neurocutan-disorders.html


Nf1 gene1
NF1 Gene

  • Cloned in 1990

  • Over 300kb of genomic DNA, 50 exons

  • Very large and complicated, and genetic changes can be very small and subtle

  • A missense mutation in GAP-Related Domain is one way NF1 is inactivated

    - usually a mutation that causes a charge inversion; mostly change from Lysine to something like Glutamine in protein

Scheffzek et al, The Embo Journal, 1998, Vol. 17

cc.oulu.fi/~anatwww/ NF/Neurofibromin/Ras.jpg


Nf1 gene inactivation loss of function
NF1 Gene Inactivation (Loss of Function)

  • 50% of cases inherited from parent, other 50% of cases start out as a new NF1 mutation in sperm or egg that makes the child

  • All cell types are initially NF+/- until a subpopulation of Schwann cells undergo LOH and become NF-/-

  • Bi-allelic inactivation in Schwann cells causes the lack of expression of Neurofibromin protein

    - Schwann cells are the initiating cells in neurofibroma formation

  • So, NF1 behaves as a dominant trait phenotypically, but is still recessive genotypically

Harrisingh and Lloyd, Cell Cycle, 2004, Vol. 3, p. e69

http://www.understandingnf1.org/id/int_id_win.html


Biochemical and cell biological role of neurofibromin
Biochemical and Cell Biological Role of Neurofibromin

  • Neurofibromin acts as a RasGAP that acts mostly in Schwann cells

    - What is a RasGAP?

Lodish et al. Fig. 20-22


Neurofibromin molecule
Neurofibromin Molecule

RasGAP

(250-400 AA)

2818

  • Has homology to p120GAP

  • Expressed in all tissues, highest levels in brain, kidney, and spleen

  • Associates with cytokeratin bundles in human keratinocytes and also binds tubulin

  • Thus, exerts its effects in part by controlling organization of cytoskeleton during the formation of cellular contacts

cc.oulu.fi/~anatwww/ NF/Neurofibromin/Ras.jpg


Neurofibromin gap related domain
Neurofibromin GAP-Related Domain

http://www.nature.com/emboj/journal/v17/n15/full/7591132a.html

Scheffzek et al, The Embo Journal, 1998, Vol. 17


Neurofibromin gap related domain and ras interaction
Neurofibromin GAP-Related Domain and Ras Interaction

http://www.nature.com/emboj/journal/v17/n15/full/7591132a.html

Scheffzek et al, The Embo Journal, 1998, Vol. 17


Neurofibromin in ras pathway
Neurofibromin in Ras Pathway

cc.oulu.fi/~anatwww/ NF/Neurofibromin/Ras.jpg


Neurofibromin involvement in schwann cells biological role
Neurofibromin involvement in Schwann cells – Biological Role

  • Neurofibromin involved in Schwann cell differentiation

  • Schwann cells are a regenerative cell typethat has no known stem-cell population

  • Part of peripheral nerves

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/neuro/sf42x10b.jpg


Schwann cells
Schwann Cells Role

http://www.unis.org/UNIScienceNet/Schwann%20cell.jpg

http://www.bu.edu/histology/i/21301loa.jpg


Biological role of neurofibromin
Biological Role of Neurofibromin Role

  • Following nerve damage, myelinating Schwann cells produce new cells by de-differentiating, proliferating, and then re-differentiating

  • Axons in vivo provide signals that regulate Schwann cell differentiation

  • Ras causes de-differentiation and leads to proliferation, and then Neurofibromin RasGAP causes re-differentiation of Schwann cells

    Harrisingh and Lloyd, Cell Cycle, 2004, Vol. 3, p. e69, 2004


Biological role of neurofibromin1

NF1 inactivation causes Roleconstitutive Ras activity in Schwann cells

Ras signalling drives the de-differentiation of myelinating Schwann cells that lead to tumors if uncontrolled

Thus, the role of Neurofibromin is to act as a tumor suppressor and control Ras activity by catalyzing its inactivation when necessary

Biological Role of Neurofibromin

Harrisingh and Lloyd, Cell Cycle, 2004, Vol. 3, p. e69-70, 2004


Biological role of neurofibromin studies
Biological Role of Neurofibromin – Studies Role

  • NF1 bi-allelic inactivation is embryonically lethal in mice

  • NF1-/- Schwann cells are angiogenic and invasive in vitro, and have:

    - elevated levels of Ras-GTP (active) compared to wild-type cells

    - altered morphology elongated and hyper-refractile, long processes

  • NF1+/- Schwann cells have intermediate phenotype (some Neurofibromin activity)

Harrisingh and Lloyd, Cell Cycle, 2004, Vol. 3, p. e69-70, 2004


Summary of biological role of neurofibromin
Summary of Biological Role of Neurofibromin Role

  • Ras pathway in Schwann cell acts by driving the de-differentiation process itself, not by blocking a differentiation signal

  • The Raf/ERK signal can act dominantly over differentiation signals emanating from axons

  • Neurofibromin indirectly allows re-differentiation to happen by controlling the level of de-differentiation

Harrisingh and Lloyd, Cell Cycle, 2004, Vol. 3, p. e70, 2004


Nf1 inactivation role in cancer de differentiation

NF1 Role+/- Schwann cells might not have sufficiently increased Ras signalling to de-differentiate

But, state may make Schwann cells more susceptible to de-differentiation and facilitate loss of second allele (LOH) to shift equilibrium in favor of the de-differentiated state

NF1 Inactivation Role in Cancer – De-Differentiation

Harrisingh and Lloyd, Cell Cycle, 2004, Vol. 3, p. e70-71


Nf1 inactivation role in cancer nonautonomous process

NF1 Role-/- Schwann cells really induce neurofibroma formation in the presence of abnormal heterozygous NF1 environment that drive proliferation

Haploinsufficient state of somatic tissue surrounding NF1 tumors initiates or progresses tumor formation

When cellular environment has both functional NF1 alleles, the onset, growth potential, and multicullular nature of NF1-/- neurofibromas is suppressed

NF1 Inactivation Role in Cancer – Nonautonomous Process

Zhu et al, Science, 2002, Vol. 296, p. 920, 922


Nf1 inactivation role in cancer nonautonomous process1
NF1 Inactivation Role in Cancer – Nonautonomous Process Role

  • “Tumor formation is a coordinated process in which incipient tumor cells recruit collaborating cells (i.e. mast, fibroblast cells) from the environment”

  • Through heterozygous inactivation mouse study, believed that heterozygous mast cells interacting with nullizygous Schwann cells creates a cytokine-rich microenvironment permissive for tumor growth

Zhu et al, Science, 2002, Vol. 296, p. 921-22


Nf1 inactivation role in cancer nonautonomous process2
NF1 Inactivation Role in Cancer – Nonautonomous Process Role

  • NF1+/- mice have abnormal responses to skin wounding, with increased collagen deposition and fibroblast proliferation, also observed in neurofibroma formation

  • NF+/- neurons, mast cells, and fibroblasts in mice do not undergo NF1 LOH, promote abnormal cell environment

  • NF+/- fibroblasts have defects in proliferation and perineurial sheath formation, allowing inappropriate exposure to circulating growth factors and hormone

  • NF-/- Schwann cells secrete increased levels of stem cell factor, thought to stimulate mast cell chemotaxis, which induces collagen deposition, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis

Harrisingh and Lloyd, Cell Cycle, 2004, Vol. 3, p. e71, 2004


Nf1 inactivation role in cancer overall
NF1 Inactivation Role in Cancer - Overall Role

  • Nerve damage could trigger the production of proliferative signals by NF1+/- fibroblasts, nerve cells, and mast cells that could result in the unregulated proliferation of de-differentiated NF1-/- Schwann cells that have lost Neurofibromin activity

  • NF1 patients undergo an altered response to normal nerve repair signal with repeated cycles of attempted repair resulting in neurofibroma formation

Harrisingh and Lloyd, Cell Cycle, 2004, Vol. 3, p. e70-1, 2004


Role of the inactivation of nf1 in cancer neurofibromatosis animation
Role of the Inactivation of NF1 in Cancer (Neurofibromatosis) - Animation

  • Inactivation of NF1 in Cancer


Neurofibromatosis type i and cancer
Neurofibromatosis Type I and Cancer (Neurofibromatosis) - Animation

  • Neurofibromas – benign

  • Plexiform neurofibromas – subtype of benign tumors, can undergo transformation by CDKN2A/p16 or INK4A inactivation (causes loss of p16 cdk inhibitor) into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs)

  • Also, MPNSTs aberrantly express EGFR

  • MPNSTs are highly aggressive cancers

  • 8-13% of NF1 patients develop it

  • 15-20% of NF1 children develop low-grade astrocytomas

Arun and Gutmann, Current Opinion in Neurology, 2004, Vol. 17, p. 101

http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/NF1.htm#malig


Neurofibromatosis type i and cancer1
Neurofibromatosis Type I and Cancer (Neurofibromatosis) - Animation

  • “NF1 patients developing malignant neoplasms can have any type of NF1 germline mutation such as a total gene deletion, a frameshift mutation, an in-frame deletion, or a missense mutation. We conclude that in our series no specific type of NF1 germline mutation was found in NF1 individuals with malignancies, but that large NF1 gene deletions were more frequently found in this group than reported for the general population of NF1 individuals.”

    Genes Chromosomes Cancer, Vol. 26, p. 376-80, 1999

European Genetics Foundation

http://www.charite.de/ch/medgen/eumedis/embryology04/neurocutan-disorders.html


What did the elephant man have
What did the Elephant Man have? (Neurofibromatosis) - Animation

  • Joseph Merrick did not have NF1

  • He really had another disease  Proteus Syndrome (sine had mutation on another gene)

Genetic Science Learning Center at the University of Utah

http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/nf1/elephantman.cfm


Treatment for nf1
Treatment for NF1 (Neurofibromatosis) - Animation

  • Primary option is surgery for both benign and malignant tumors

  • Noncomparative phase II evaluation of cis-retinoic acid (promaturation agent) and interferon-alpha (anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic effects)

  • Phase I studies for farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors that inhibit Ras activity

  • Pirfenidone, an antibiotic drug that regulates cytokine action, in clinical trial

  • EGFR inhibitors may be effective in MPNSTs

  • Possibly therapies that neutralize the effects of haploinsufficiency before the onset of tumorogenesis

Arun and Gutmann, Current Opinion in Neurology, 2004, Vol. 17, p. 102, 104


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