Adolescent risk behaviors
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 33

Adolescent Risk Behaviors PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 90 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Adolescent Risk Behaviors. Lesley Cottrell, PhD West Virginia University, Department of Pediatrics Section Chief: Epidemiological, Psychosocial, & Behavioral Research. Rationale for Prevention among Youth. Adolescence is a time… of new-found freedom and exploration

Download Presentation

Adolescent Risk Behaviors

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Adolescent risk behaviors

Adolescent Risk Behaviors

Lesley Cottrell, PhD

West Virginia University,

Department of Pediatrics

Section Chief: Epidemiological, Psychosocial, & Behavioral Research


Rationale for prevention among youth

Rationale for Prevention among Youth

  • Adolescence is a time…

    • of new-found freedom and exploration

    • when behaviors are established that have both an immediate and long-lasting health impact.

    • to provide prevention messages as patterns of health behaviors are being established.


Overview

Overview

  • Epidemiology

  • Current State of Science

    • Intervention Research

  • Emerging Issues

  • Interventions in the pipeline


Epidemiology

Epidemiology


Adolescent risk behaviors

Ever Had Sexual Intercourse, by Gender and Race/Ethnicity

National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2005

* B > H > W


Ever had sexual intercourse 1991 2005

Ever Had Sexual Intercourse, 1991 – 2005

National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1991 – 2005

1 Significant linear decrease, P < .05


Had first sexual intercourse before age 13 years by gender and race ethnicity

Had First Sexual Intercourse Before Age 13 Years, by Gender and Race/Ethnicity

* M > F

** B > H > W

National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2005


Had first sexual intercourse before age 13 years 1991 2005

Had First Sexual Intercourse Before Age 13 Years, 1991 – 2005

National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1991 – 2005

1 Significant linear decrease, P < .05


Had sexual intercourse with 4 persons during their life by gender and race ethnicity

Had Sexual Intercourse with >4 Persons During their Life, by Gender* and Race/Ethnicity,**

* M > F** B > H > W

National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2005


Had sexual intercourse with 4 persons during their life 1991 2005

Had Sexual Intercourse with >4 Persons During their Life, 1991 – 2005

National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1991 – 2005

1 Significant linear decrease, P < .05


Currently sexually active by gender and race ethnicity

Currently Sexually Active,* by Gender and Race/Ethnicity,**

* Had sexual intercourse with ≥ 1 persons during the 3 months preceding the survey

** B > W, H


Currently sexually active 1991 2005

Currently Sexually Active,* 1991 – 2005

* Had sexual intercourse with ≥ 1 persons during the 3 months preceding the survey

1 Significant linear decrease, P < .05


Hiv sti and pregnancy among youth

HIV, STI, and Pregnancy Among Youth

  • Of the 19 million new STIs that occur in US each year, 48% are among young people ages 15 – 24.

  • 15% to 30% of new HIV cases occur among individuals under 25 years of age.

  • There were 757,000 pregnancies in 2002 among 15-19 year olds.

  • African American and Hispanic/Latino youth are disproportionately affected by these outcomes.


Sexually transmitted disease

Sexually Transmitted Disease

  • 15 – 24 year-olds acquire nearly 50% of all new STDs.

  • 9.1 million cases of STDs occur among 15-24 year olds each year.

  • Increased rates of some STDs, primarily because of improved screening.


Chlamydia age and gender specific rates united states 2004

10-14

15-19

20-24

25-29

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-54

55-64

65+

Total

Chlamydia — Age- and Gender-Specific Rates: United States, 2004

Rate (per 100,000 population)

Men

Women

3,000

2,400

1,800

1,200

600

0

0

600

1,200

1,800

2,400

3,000

Age

132.0

10.8

2,761.5

458.3

2,630.7

744.7

402.9

1,039.5

364.8

185.2

99.3

148.3

56.1

62.6

23.0

22.4

7.4

6.2

2.2

2.0

147.5

486.2

(STD Surveillance 2004, CDC, Sept. 2005)


Gonorrhea age and gender specific rates united states 2004

750

600

450

300

150

0

0

150

300

450

600

750

Gonorrhea — Age- and Gender-Specific Rates: United States, 2004

Rate (per 100,000 population)

Men

Women

Age

5.8

10-14

36.9

15-19

252.9

610.9

20-24

430.6

569.1

25-29

302.1

269.7

114.2

30-34

178.6

35-39

124.5

60.3

40-44

89.6

32.9

11.7

45-54

48.1

55-64

17.0

2.5

65+

4.1

0.6

116.7

Total

110.2

(STD Surveillance 2004, CDC, Sept. 2005)


Adolescent risk behaviors

STDs

  • Greater risk for STDs than people in other age groups.

  • Female youth and youth of color are disproportionately affected.

  • African Americans have the highest rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

    • In 2005, compared to Whites, African Americans were about:

      • 18 times as likely to have gonorrhea

      • 7 times as likely to have Chlamydia

      • 5 times as likely to have syphilis.

  • The presence of certain STDs can increase one’s chances of contracting HIV 3- to 5-fold.


Adolescent pregnancy

Adolescent Pregnancy

  • Decrease in rates of pregnancy overall

    • smaller decreases in ethnic minority youth;

    • most recent data suggest rates are not continuing to decrease and in most states have remained level.

  • 831,000 pregnancies occur each year among 15-19 year olds.


Racial ethnic disparities in teen birth rates

Racial/Ethnic Disparitiesin Teen Birth Rates

% Decline

33%

38%

47%

21%

1991

61.8

43.4

118.2

104.6

2004

41.1

26.7

63.1

82.6

All races

Non Hispanic White

Non-Hispanic Black

Hispanic

Rates per 1,000 females aged 15-19


Birth rates among females aged 15 19 years by state united states 2004

Birth Rates* Among Females Aged 15--19 Years, by State --- United States, 2004


Adolescent risk behaviors

HIV/AIDS Among Adolescents


Critical issues affecting disparities

Critical Issues Affecting Disparities

  • Behavioral Factors

    • Early sexual debut

    • Multiple sex partners

    • High risk sexual behavior

  • Contextual Factors

    • Cultural beliefs about sexuality

    • Gender roles

    • Access to health care services

  • Structural Factors

    • Social, economic and race based inequality

  • Social Networks

    • Black young adults at high risk even when their behaviors are normative

    • Factors other than individual risk behaviors and covariates appear to account for racial disparities


Current state of science intervention research

Current State of Science – Intervention Research


Adolescent risk behaviors

Moving Research into Practice

DEBI: Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions

Adaptation

www.effectiveinterventions.org

http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/projects/rep/default.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/research/prs/index.htm


Identifying effective interventions prevention research synthesis prs project

Identifying Effective Interventions:Prevention Research Synthesis (PRS) Project

  • Goal:

    • Review and synthesize cumulative body of evidence from the scientific research literature to help inform policy decisions, programmatic efforts, and future research

    • Identify evidence-based behavioral interventions

  • Results:

    • 31 interventions identified as “best evidence”

    • 7 were for youth

  • Ongoing review for earlier and later years


Prs project website

PRS Project Website

Fact Sheet:

  • Target population

  • Intervention

  • Research study

  • Key findings


Interventions identified by prs for youth n 15

Interventions Identified by PRS for Youth (n=15)

  • Best Evidence (n=7)

    • Becoming a Responsible Teen (BART) (St. Lawrence, 1995)

    • Be Proud! Be Responsible! (Jemmott, 1992)

    • Focus on Kids (FOK) + Informed Parents and Children Together (ImPACT) (Wu, Stanton, 2003)

    • Sistas, Informing, Healing, Living and Empowering (SiHLE) (DiClemente, 2004)

    • Sisters saving Sisters (Jemmott, 2005)

    • Choosing Life: Empowerment, Actions, Results (CLEAR-in person) Rotheram-Borus, 2004)

    • ¡Cuídate! (Take Care of Yourself) (Villarruel, 2006)


Interventions identified by prs for youth

Interventions Identified by PRS for Youth

Promising Evidence (5)

  • Safer Sex– (Shrier, 2001)

  • Focus on Kids (FOK) (Stanton, 1996)

  • Intensive AIDS Education (Magura, 1994)

  • Street Smart (Rotheram-Borus, 2003)

  • Together Learning Choices—(Rotheram-Borus, 2001)

    Compendium (3)

  • AIDS Community Demonstration Projects (Community PROMISE) (ACDP, 1999)

  • Reducing the Risk (School based)

  • Get Real about AIDS 1992 (School based)


Debi youth interventions

DEBI Youth Interventions


Common intervention messages

Common Intervention Messages

  • peer opinion leaders to assist in program delivery

  • active social learning methods, involving role plays, behavioral rehearsal, and group discussion

  • inclusion of parents through homework and other activities

  • the same risk and protective factors may predict various problems

  • risk and protective factors may be found in the environment as well as in the individual

  • developmental needs, processes, and tasks should be taken into account


  • Login