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Economic and Industrial Geography Terms. 2007. Agricultural labor force. % of people employed in agriculture High % of people employed in agriculture associated with low per capita income and low energy consumption and underdevelopment. Calorie consumption.

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Economic and Industrial Geography Terms

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Economic and Industrial Geography Terms


Agricultural labor force

  • % of people employed in agriculture

  • High % of people employed in agriculture associated with low per capita income and low energy consumption and underdevelopment

Calorie consumption

  • Requirements vary according to occupation, age, sex, size and climate conditions

  • Used to assess the degree of undernourishment of a country’s population

Core-periphery model

  • A model of the spatial structure of the economic system in with underdeveloped or declining peripheral areas are defined with respect to their dependence on a dominating developed core region

Cultural convergence

  • The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organization structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication

Dependency theory

  • A structuralist model arguing that political and economic relationships (especially colonialism) between countries and regions control and limit the extent to which regions can develop

Energy consumption

  • A measure of development correlated loosely with per capita income, degree of industrialization, and use of advanced technology

Foreign direct investment

  • The total of overseas business investments made by private companies


  • Social differences between men and women---vary greatly over time and space


  • The value of the goods and services produced within a country in a given year


  • The value of the goods and services produced by a country’s economy within a given year. Includes goods and services produced by corporations and individuals of a country, whether or not they are located within the country

Human Development Index

  • An indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by the UN, compining income, literacy, education and life expectancy

Levels of Development

Measures of Development

  • Human development index

  • Gender related development index

  • Gender empowerment measure


  • Economic and political strategies by which powerful core states indirectly maintain or extend influence over other areas or people

Physical Quality of Life Index

  • an attempt to measure the quality of life or well-being of a country. The value is a single number derived from basic literacy rate, infant mortality, and life expectancy at age one, all equally weighted on a 0 to 100 scale

Purchasing Power Parity

  • A monetary measurement taking into account what money actually buys in a country

W.W. Rostow

  • Developed the five stages of growth

Stages of Growth Model

Technology Gap

  • The contrast between the technology available in the core and present in the periphery

Technology Transfer

  • The diffusion or acquisition by one culture or region of the technology possessed by another

Third World

  • can be used to divide the nations of Earth into one of three broad categories

  • the Third World became a synonym for those nations that aligned themselves with neither the West nor with the Soviet Bloc during the Cold War.

World Systems Theory

  • Emmanuel Wallerstein

  • One of many theories that treat the global economy as a large system


  • When a substantial number of enterprises cluster in the same area, as in a large industrial city, they can provide assistance to each other through shared talents, services and facilities

Agglomeration Economies

  • agglomeration economies refers to savings or benefits derived from the clustering of activities

Assembly Line/Fordism

  • Traditionally in large factories each worker was assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly

Bid Rent Theory

  • a geographical theory that refers to how the price and demand on land changes as the distance towards the CBD (Central Business District) increases.

Break of Bulk Point

  • The location (usually a port) where a shipment is divided into parts. This usually (such as at the port) happens where a transfer of the shipment between transport modes occurs, such as between water and land at a port.

Comparative Advantage

  • Principle whereby places and regions specialize in activities for which they have the greatest advantage in productivity relative to other regions----or for which they have the least disadvantage


  • The process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition


  • a relative decline in industrial employment in core regions

Economic Sectors

  • Primary

  • Secondary

  • Tertiary

  • Quaternary

  • Quinary

Economies of Scale

  • Savings that accrue from large-scale production when the unit cost of manufacturing decreases as the level of operation enlarges


  • Aims to inform about the natural environment


  • A place, usually a port city where goods are imported, stored, and transshipped; a break of bulk point

Export Processing Zone

  • Small areas within which especialy foavorble investment and trading conditions are created by governments in order to attract export oriented industries

Fixed Costs

  • Fixed costs are expenses whose total does not change in proportion to the activity of a business, within the relevant time period or scale of production.

    • Rent

    • Utilities

    • Payroll

Footloose Industry

  • an industry whose production costs are unaffected by location

  • many modern industries have components which are much easier to transport, giving them much more choice of location

Four Tigers

  • These countries and territories were noted for maintaining high growth rates and rapid industrialization between the early 1960s and 1990s

Growth Poles

  • Economic activities that are deliberately organized around one or more high-growth industries

  • Industries designed to stimulate growth through the establishment of various supporting industries

Industrial Location Theory

  • Attempts to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity in terms of the factors that influence this pattern

Industrial Regions

  • Western and Central Europe

  • Eastern North America

  • Russia and Ukraine

  • Eastern Asia

Industrial Revolution

  • A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods


  • The foundations of society:

    • Urban centers

    • Transport networks

    • Communications

    • Energy systems

    • Educational facilities

    • Farms, factories, mines

International Division of Labor

  • The specialization by countries in particular products for export


  • An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses

Least-Cost Location

  • Model developed by Weberaccording to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimalization of three critical expenses

    • 1)

    • 2)

    • 3)


  • Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico

  • Imported components or raw materials are assembled and then finished products are exported

  • An example of an export processing zone

Market orientation

  • Production of a good will be located near the market if the cost of transporting goods to consumers is a critical locational factor

    • Bulk gaining

    • Single market

    • Perishable

  • Example of a situation factor

Multiplier effect

  • Expansion of economic activity caused by the growth or introduction of another activity


  • North American Free Trade Agreement

  • 1994

  • Created a free trade area between US, Mexico and Canada

  • Provides for tariff free movement of goods, products, financial services, telecommunications, investment and patent protection


  • The process of transfering a function or service to a third party

  • Generally takes advantage of low wages in semi-peripheral or periphery countries


  • An emerging economy in technologically advanced countries as traditional industry is overshadowed by a high-tech productive complex dominated by services and info related and managerial activities


Resource orientation

  • If the weight and bulk of any one input is particularly great, the firm may locate near the source of that input to minimize transportation costs

    • Bulk reducing industries

      • Copper

      • Steel

Special economic zones (China)

  • SEZ’s

  • A specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign businesses and investment

  • a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws

Specialized economic zones

Substitution principle

  • From Weber, when one cost decreases a firm can endure higher costs in another area


  • Range is the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service

  • Threshold is the minimum number of people needed to support the service

Time-space compression

  • The reduction in time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems

Transnational corporation

  • A company that conducts research, operates factories and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located


  • Being or seeming to be everywhere at the same time

Variable costs

  • expenses that change in proportion to the activity of a business

Weight gaining

  • an industry that makes something that gains volume or weight during production

    • Bulk gaining industries

Weight losing

  • An economic activity in which the final product weighs less than its inputs

    • Bulk reducing

      • Copper

      • Steel

World cities

  • Most closely integrated into the global economic system because they are at the center of the flow of information and capital

    • London

    • New York

    • Tokyo

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