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Principals of fluids and electrolytes management. Ram Elazary , MD General Surgery Department Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center Campus Ein-Kerem , Jerusalem. Total Body Water. body weight%Total body water% Total 60100 I ntracellular 4067 E xtracellular 2033

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Principals of fluids and electrolytes management

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Principals of fluids and electrolytes management

Principals of fluids and electrolytes management

Ram Elazary, MD

General Surgery Department

Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center

Campus Ein-Kerem, Jerusalem

Total body water

Total Body Water

body weight%Total body







Composition of fluids

Composition of Fluids













Control of volume

Control of Volume

Kidneys maintain constant volume and composition of body fluids

  • Filtration and reabsorption of Na

  • Regulation of water excretion in response to ADH

    Water is freely diffusible

  • Movement of certain ions and proteins between compartments restricted

Control of volume1

Control of Volume

Effective circulating volume

  • Portion of ECF that perfuses organs

  • Usually equates to Intravascular volume

    Third space loss

  • Abnormal shift of fluid for Intravascular to tissues eg bowel obst, i/o, pancreatitis

Normal water exchange

Normal Water Exchange

Mean daily (ml)Minimal daily (ml)

SensibleUrine800-1500600Intestinal up to litersSweat up to liters500


( 10%/1 o rise in Temp)

Normal source of water

Normal source of water

~2000ml-1300 free water intake

700bound to food

additional water from catabolism

Water and eletrolytes exchange

Water and Eletrolytes Exchange

Surgical patients prone to disruption:

  • NPO

  • anaesthesia

  • Trauma (surgery)

  • sepsis

Fluid and electrolytes therapy

Fluid and Electrolytes Therapy

Surgical patients need:

  • Maintenance volume requirements

  • On going losses

  • Volume excess/deficits

  • Maintenance electrolyte requirements

  • Electrolyte excess/deficits

1 volume deficit

1. Volume Deficit

  • vital signs changes

    • Blood pressure

    • Heart rate

    • CVP

  • Peripheral temperature and capillary filling time

  • urine output low

1 volume deficit1

1. Volume Deficit

  • Decreased skin turgor

  • Sunken eyes

  • Oliguria

  • Orthostatic hypotension

  • High BUN/Creatine ratio

  • Plasma Na may be normal

Fluids resusitation

Fluids resusitation

  • Adults:

    1000 ml

  • Pediatrics:

    20 ml/kg

    Fluids of crystaloids (NS or RL)

    Repeated dose

2 maintenance requirements

2. Maintenance Requirements

This includes:insensible loss


stool losses

Body weightFluid required0-10Kg100ml/kg/dnext 10-20Kg50 ml/kg/dsubsequent Kg 20ml/kg/d15ml/Kg/d for elderly

70 kg man needs

70 Kg Man Needs

1st 10kg x 100mls = 1000mls

2nd 10kg x 50mls = 500mls

Next 50kg x 20mls= 1000mls

TOTAL 2500 mls /d

Maintenance electrolyte requirements

Maintenance Electrolyte Requirements

Na 1-2mEq/Kg/dK 0.5 - 1 mEq/Kg/d

  • Usually no K given until urine output is adequate

  • Always give K with care, in an infusion slowly - never bolus (max 0.2% KCL through peripheral IV)

Principals of fluids and electrolytes management

  • Na 1gr = 17 mEq

  • K1gr = 13.6 mEq

  • 70 KgH2O2500ml

    Na70*2 =140 mEq = ~ 9gr

    K70*1 =70 mEq = ~ 5gr

    2500 0.45NS + 0.2%KCl 100ml/h

Fluids composition

fluids composition

3 on going losses

3. On Going Losses

  • NGT

  • drains

  • fistulae

  • third space losses

4 volume excess

4. Volume Excess

  • Over hydration

  • Mobilization of third space losses


    • weight gain

    • pulmonary edema

    • peripheral edema

    • S3 gallop

Fluid and electrolyte therapy

Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy


  • normal hemodynamic parameters

  • normal electrolyte concentration


    replace deficits

    normal maintenance requirements

    ongoing losses

Fluid and electrolyte therapy1

Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy

Normal maintenance requirements

  • use BW formula

    On going losses

  • measure all losses in I/O chart

  • estimate third space losses


  • estimate using vital signs

  • estimate using U/O

Fluid and electrolyte therapy2

Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy

The best estimate of the volume required

is the patients response

After therapy started observe

  • vital signs

  • Urine output (0.5mls/Kg/hr)

  • Central venous pressure

Time frame for replacement

Time Frame for Replacement

  • Usually correct over 24 hours

  • For ill patients calculate over shorter period and reassess e.g. 1, 2 hours or 3 hours for e op cases

  • Deficits - correct half the amount over the period and reassess

Postoperative fluid therapy

Postoperative Fluid Therapy

  • Check IV regimen ordered in op form

  • Assess for deficits by checking I/O chart and vital signs

  • Maintenance requirements calculated

  • Usually K not started

  • Monitor carefully vital signs and urine output

Postoperative fluid therapy1

Postoperative Fluid Therapy

  • Urine specific gravity may be used(1.010 - 1.012)

  • CVP useful in difficult situations (5-15 cm H20)

  • Body weight measured in special situation e.g. burns

Concentration changes

Concentration Changes

  • changes in plasma Na are indicative of abnormal TBW

  • losses in surgery are usually isotonic

  • hypoosmolar condition usually caused by replacement with free water

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