Learning maladaptive behavior
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Learning & Maladaptive Behavior. Lesson 17. Maladaptive Behavior. Detrimental to well-being/survival How is it acquired? Normal learning mechanisms Operant (Instrumental) learning overt behaviors Respondent learning CERs physiological responses covert behaviors ~.

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Learning & Maladaptive Behavior

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Learning maladaptive behavior

Learning & Maladaptive Behavior

Lesson 17


Maladaptive behavior

Maladaptive Behavior

  • Detrimental to well-being/survival

  • How is it acquired?

    • Normal learning mechanisms

  • Operant (Instrumental) learning

    • overt behaviors

  • Respondent learning

    • CERs

    • physiological responses

    • covert behaviors ~


Maladaptive learning respondent

Maladaptive Learning: Respondent

  • Conditioned Emotional Responses

    • fear/anxiety

    • anticipatory pain

  • Phobias

  • Depression

  • Panic Disorder

    • With agoraphobia

  • Post-traumatic stress-disorder ~


Conditioned emotional responses

Conditioned Emotional Responses

  • Acquired Motivation

    • Motivates maladaptive behaviors

    • covert behavior: Fear & Anxiety

    • Pavlovian

  • Self-medication

    • Addictive behaviors

    • Mood modification

    • Via behavior or substance use

    • acquisition by operant ~


Maladaptive eating behaviors

Maladaptive Eating Behaviors

  • Higher incidence of

    • depression & anxiety

    • OCD & substance abuse

    • women: relationship problems

  • Maintained via reinforcement

    • self-medication

  • Obesity

    • positive & negative reinforcement

    • health problems ~


Eating disorders

Eating Disorders

  • Anorexia nervosa

    • little or no eating

  • Bulimia

    • binge & purge

  • Motivation?

    • Negative body image  anxiety

    • lack of control

  • Control eating  RFT ~


Substance abuse addiction

Substance Abuse & Addiction

  • Abused/Addictive drugs

    • Positive reinforcers

    • Negative reinforcers

    • Aversive aftereffects

  • Normal reinforcement mechanisms

    • Same as natural reinforcers

  • Strengthens drug-taking behavior

    • Addiction: compulsive use ~


Abusive relationships

Abusive Relationships

  • Why do women stay with men who physically abuse them?

    • Pain as punishment

  • Honeymoon phase as Pos RFT

    • Initially

    • later following abuse

  • History of punishing behavior

    • early weak  later severe

    • habituation ~


Obsessive compulsive disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  • Obsessions

    • Persistent, intrusive thoughts

    • Produce anxiety

  • Compulsions

    • Repetitive behaviors

    • Reduce anxiety

  • Acquired & maintained by…

    • Negative reinforcement ~


Learned helplessness

Learned Helplessness

  • Animal model of depression

  • No contingency b/n behavior & aversive outcomes

    • Saversive: B  no effect

  • Global expectancy develops

    • ineffectiveness of behavior

    • Failure to respond even when it may be successful ~


Experimental procedure

Master rat

Yoked rat

Experimental procedure

  • Master

    • response can terminate shock

  • Yoked

    • shocked w/ master

    • no control over shock ~


Give all avoidance training

Give all avoidance training

  • Transfer all to shuttlebox training

    • Standard escape / avoidance task

  • Will they learn to escape?

    • Master?

    • Yoked? ~


Master vs yoked

Master vs Yoked

  • Difference in escape learning, but

  • Both shocked

    • Same number

    • Same intensity

    • Same duration

  • How do they differ?

    • Control of shock ~


Conclusions

Uncontrollable

Aversive Events

LearnedHelplessness

Conclusions

  • Yoked rat develops expectation

    • no response will terminate shock

    • generalizes to other situations

  • Global expectancy of ineffectiveness ~


Stress induced analgesia

Stress-induced Analgesia

  • Decrease in pain sensitivity

    • Occurs in rats in uncontrollable circumstances

  • Use same rats from learned helplessness

    • Test for analgesia

    • Tail Flick Test ~


Results

Results

  • Master  no analgesia

    • stress is controllable

  • Yoked rat  analgesic

    • stress is uncontrollable

  • Less sensitive to pain

    • May stay in contact with painful stimulus longer

    • Injury more likely ~


Kids math problems

Kids & Math Problems

  • Dweck & Rapucci (1973)

    • 5th graders given series of math problems

  • Give easy problems

    • performance good

  • Give unsolvable problems

  • Give easy again

    • difficulty doing easy problems ~


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