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Electric Baseload Basics ACI 09 FUND 8: Wednesday, April 29, 2009 2:00 pm to 3:40 pm Kansas City, Missouri. Rana Belshe Conservation Connection Consulting Fairchild, Wisconsin 715-334-2707. A. Tamasin Sterner Pure Energy Lancaster, Pennsylvania 717-293-8990. Session Objectives.

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A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990
Electric Baseload BasicsACI 09 FUND 8: Wednesday, April 29, 20092:00 pm to 3:40 pm Kansas City, Missouri

Rana Belshe

Conservation Connection Consulting

Fairchild, Wisconsin

715-334-2707

A. Tamasin Sterner

Pure Energy

Lancaster, Pennsylvania

717-293-8990


Session objectives
Session Objectives

Learn how to separate electric baseload from whole house electric use

Explore how occupants, equipment, and use patterns affect electricity consumption

Evaluate options and actions to reduce use


Today s topics
Today’s Topics

The equipment we will talk about today:

  • Electronics

  • Lighting

  • Refrigeration

  • Water Heating

  • And a few other things

  • What they use

  • How they work

  • What can be done – in terms of measures and behaviors



  • Baseload seasonal total household electric use
    Baseload + Seasonal = Total Household Electric Use

    Baseload: Electricity that power things—lights and appliances--used year round

    Seasonal use: Electricity used to provide heating, cooling, often dehumidification

    The goal is to understand how a particular household uses electricity, identify the possibilities for reducing that use and dialogue with the occupant for the best possible outcomes.


    Holiday hell o
    Holiday Hell-o

    Example of lighting as a seasonal load

    Photo: A. Tamasin Sterner, Pure Energy



    Reasons to address baseload
    Reasons to Address Baseload

    Sometimes, reducing electric baseload can guarantee better savings than measures geared toward reducing the cost of heating and/or cooling: Savings Follows Use.

    Plug loads are increasing.

    Electric energy waste (energized equipment not in active use) is increasing.


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    • “ Electricity originates inside clouds. There it forms lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Dave Barry, Funny Times, 2002


    Electricity energy power
    Electricity: Energy & Power lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Energy

    From meter to utility bill

    power over time

    • Watt hour - Wh

    • kiloWatt hour - kWh

      (1,000 Wh)

    Power

    Nameplate – potential –instantaneous demand

    • Watt - W

    • kiloWatt (1,000 W) – kW

    • Watt - is one joule per second or the power supplied when a current of one ampere is driven by a potential difference of one volt


    Energy cost value february 4 2009
    Energy Cost & Value lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”February 4, 2009

    Cost/Unit x Unit/MBtu = Cost/Mbtu

    Pricing Source: ww.eia.doe.gov.neic/experts/heatcalc.xls


    General baseload analysis
    General Baseload Analysis lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”


    Tools of the trade
    Tools of the Trade lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    2-3 prong adapter

    MicroWeir or stop watch and container

    Drip gauge

    Lamp harp and diffuser extenders

    Product sheet showing replacement light fixtures

    Screwdrivers, pliers, or a multipurpose tool like a Leatherman™

    Laptop computer with appliance use software

    • Consumption history

    • Calculator

    • Camera

    • Clipboard & pen

    • Tape measure

    • kWh meter

    • Ground tester

    • Thermometers

    • Flashlight

    • Ladder

    • Gloves (to remove hot bulbs)

    • Extension cord


    Establish baseload use
    Establish Baseload Use lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Obtain (a printout of) the customer’s electricity use for at least one year prior to the site visit.

    Separate the baseload use from the total use by:

    adding together the three lowest months (not weird numbers)

    dividing the sum by 3 to get an average baseload month’s use

    multiplying that number by 12 months

    This can easily be done visually from a bar chart.

    There are lots of ways to do this. They all work.


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    Annual Customer Usage Printout lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    LANCASTERPA17603

    LANActive40256S25894Non Ele Ht Cool

    1. Three lowest months = 892+ 1,056+ 1,134 = 3,082 ÷ 3 months

    2. Average monthly use = 1,027 kWh/mo

    3. 1,027 kWh/mo x 12 mo = 12,328 kWh/yr baseload


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    Consumption History lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Approximate monthly baseload use ~ 600 kWh or about 7,200 kWh/year


    Annual end use consumption ranges kwh
    Annual End Use Consumption Ranges (kWh) lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    National averages trued up to PA utility program experience


    Assess the opportunity for energy savings
    Assess the Opportunity for Energy Savings lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Determine if the customer’s use is in the low, mid range, or high range using their consumption history or data on their utility bills.

    Focus your efforts in the home based on your determination.

    Since savings follows use, you will likely find more opportunities to save energy where the use is high.

    If any category of use is low, then save time and focus where the use is medium or high


    Savings follows use waste
    Savings Follows Use / Waste lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Total electricity use relates directly

    to potential electricity savings


    Reasons for high baseload
    Reasons for High Baseload lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    • Time on – 24/7 adds up quickly

    • High demand / power (kW)

    • Poor control strategies

    • Not known to be operating

    • Faulty equipment

    • Intermittent use

    • Hidden loads

    • Lots of people in the household

    PPL Managing CAP Credits Pilot Program, 2006


    What does my bill pay for
    What Does My Bill Pay For lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Source: 2007 Buildings Energy Data Book


    Why address baseload electricity use is rising
    Why Address Baseload? lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”Electricity Use is Rising

    Mark Fortney, 2007, PHRC, PA Home Energy Forum


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    Plug Load Energy Use is Increasing lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    U.S. delivered residential energy consumption by end use,

    2001, 2004, 2015, and 2030 (million Btu per household)

    Source: Energy Information Administration 2006


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    @ $.09/kWh lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    “NRDC Study of Set Top Box and Game Console Power Use”, Peter Ostendorp, Ecos Consulting, May 2007


    Plug load baseload energy use by product category
    Plug Load Baseload Energy Use by Product Category lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    2007 Ecos Consulting, “Final Field Research Report”: Share of Plug Load Energy Use by Product Category27


    Power settings mode
    Power Settings & Mode lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    ON

    REALLY OFF

    “OFF”

    • Standby power

    • Phantom load

    • Vampire power

    • Idle power

    Anything with a remote, display, touchpad, or light is using power even when turned “off”

    Active power

    Low power mode

    Indeterminate power

    Sleep/hibernate

    No power

    Unplugged

    Power switched off with strip or other control device


    Game console power use
    Game Console Power Use lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    NRDC Study of Set Top Box and Game Console Power Use, May 2007, Peter Ostendorp, Ecos Consulting


    Power supplies a growing component
    Power Supplies: A Growing Component lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Function: convert wall voltage ac to low voltage dc needed to operate today’s digital chips, LED indicators, displays, etc.

    6% to 10% of U.S. electricity flows through the nation’s 3.6 billion power supplies

    • Roughly 1 to 2% of U.S. electricity could be saved by improving power supply efficiency

      • $2.1 to 4.2 billion saved by consumers on their electricity bills

      • Prevent release of 40 to 80 million tons of CO2 into the atmosphere

      • Equivalent of taking 2.3 to 4.6 million cars off the road

      • Equivalent of building roughly 4.5 to 9 average sized power plants

    2007 Ecos Consulting, “Final Field Research Report”


    Sample annual kwh of tvs by mode
    Sample Annual kWh of TVs by Mode lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Standby power is similar regardless of TV type or size.

    Newer TVs use a lot more energy than older ones.

    Larger and newer technologies (plasma & rear projection) tend to be used more and are frequently part of a larger entertainment set up.

    Source: Ecos Consulting, “Final Field Research Report”, 2007


    Managing computer power use
    Managing Computer Power Use lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Teach everyone that it makes sense to Turn off monitor if not using for > 5-20 min. and both CPU and monitor if not using for > 30-60 min.

    Use power strips for positive “off” and control of peripherals

    Learn about and teach others about how to Activate Power Management Functions

    Maximize sleep features in the operating system


    Battery charging strategies
    Battery Charging Strategies lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    • Chargers can draw 5 to 20 times more power than they can store so...

      • Unplug chargers once battery is charged

      • Use timer to control charge cycle

    • Choose equipment based on charging performance

    Buy efficient chargers

    Use rechargeable batteries

    Use power strips to simplify disconnecting chargers


    Advanced power strip options
    Advanced Power Strip Options lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    http://www.p3international.com

    http://wattstopper.com

    http://www.smarthomeusa.com/Shop/Smart-Energy/Smart-Strip


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    Strategies to Control Home Electronic Energy Use lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Unplug stuff you don’t use

    Manage control settings for maximum efficiency

    Turn equipment off when not actively using

    Minimize standby use with power strips, switched outlets, unplugging, etc.

    Purchase less stuff

    Buy the most efficient products possible


    Nighttime from the space shuttle
    Nighttime from the Space Shuttle lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”


    What affects lighting use
    What Affects Lighting Use? lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Number of sockets/bulbs

    Hours of use

    Wattage

    Lumens (brightness)

    Restrictive fixtures / colors

    Task vs general lighting

    For each bulb:

    • Watts x hours = Wh

    • Wh x .001 = kWh

    • kWh x $/kWh = Cost


    Incandescent vs cfls
    Incandescent vs. CFLs lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”


    Lumen comparison
    Lumen Comparison lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=cfls.pr_cfls


    Lighting
    Lighting lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Lighting can be a surprising share of baseload-- 15-20%

    Average home has 25 - 43 sockets/bulbs

    CFLs can typically reduce use electricity use by two-thirds or more

    Reduced waste heat saves on air conditioning and improves comfort


    Choosing bulbs
    Choosing Bulbs lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Look for Energy Star logo

    Select the best bulb for the fixture

    Shape

    Location

    Color quality

    Dimmability

    Highest lumens per Watt

    Be aware of weight and overheating

    Mercury content/disposal

    Lumen equivalency, not Watts

    Electronic interference


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=cfls.pr_cfls lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”


    3 valuable pieces of information
    3 Valuable Pieces of Information lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Lumens

    Watts

    Life

    Use the box as a teaching aid with customers


    Efi bulb finder
    EFI Bulb Finder lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    www.energyfederation.org


    Led lighting
    LED Lighting lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=fixtures.pr_light_fixtures


    Hard wired fixtures
    Hard-wired Fixtures lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=fixtures.pr_light_fixtures


    Feedback from the field
    Feedback From the Field lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Issues:

    The light is not bright enough

    The bulb doesn’t fit within fixture

    The bulb takes too long to brighten

    The bulb looks weird

    The bulb was installed without customer acceptance

    Too few were installed

    Disposal and mercury concerns

    So, to assure client satisfaction, choose carefully. There are plenty of excellent CFL’s available.


    Baseload and building science
    Baseload and Building Science lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    • One example:

    • Recessed lights are holes in the envelope, most of which leak air

    • Local hot spot enhances exfiltration forces

    • A 13 watt bulb increases air flow through a leaky can by 60% when it’s on, a 50 watt bulb by 170% and a 100 watt bulb by 400%!

    Larry Kinney, Synertech Systems Inc


    Telltale signs in the snow
    Telltale Signs in the Snow lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Larry Kinney, Synertech Systems Inc


    Can light above bed in mbr
    Can Light Above Bed in MBR lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Customer complained about cold air in bedroom

    IR spot radiometer has laser pointer, costs $120

    Reveals non-trivial problem that’s clear to all (including customer)

    IAT = 70F; OAT = 25F; Can = 43F

    Warm air rises, cold air descends!

    Larry Kinney, Synertech Systems Inc


    Ceiling fixture
    Ceiling Fixture lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Includes hard wired CFL, electronic ballast

    Can cover “can” lights; providing better, diffuse light and allows the cans to be air sealed and insulated

    Saves electricity and gas!

    Larry Kinney, Synertech Systems Inc


    Ceiling fixture1
    Ceiling Fixture lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    This Instant Pendant Light screws into the recessed light fixture


    Powerlux solution no leaks
    PowerLux Solution—No Leaks lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Ballast is outside of hot can in rim where it stays cool

    CFLs that fit the system are available in 18, 26, 32, and 42 watts, and in color temperatures from 2700 to 4100K

    All have a color rendering index of 82 and 12,000 hour lifetimes

    Initial luminous efficacy ranges from 67 to 76 lm/W

    Larry Kinney, Synertech Systems Inc


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    Outcome of Dirty Photocell lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    A. Tamasin Sterner, Pure Energy


    Strategies to reduce electric light use
    Strategies To Reduce Electric Light Use lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    Use natural light whenever possible

    Turn lights off when not needed – especially anything left on 24/7

    Consider photo and occupancy sensors

    Choose bulbs with highest lumens per watt

    Select lighting to fit each task or situation

    Use a low watt nightlight instead of a main light

    Use light colored lampshades/reflector cans

    Clean bulbs and fixtures for brightest light


    Ge refrigerator circa 1934
    GE Refrigerator circa 1934 lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”


    Factors affecting refrigerator energy use
    Factors Affecting Refrigerator Energy Use lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    • Size

    • Features

    • Age

    • Ambient air temperature

    • Control settings

      • Thermostats

      • Anti-sweat (energy saver) switch

    • Loading patterns

    • Covered containers

    • Condition of door gaskets

    • Cleanliness of coils

    • Door openings


    Safe and efficient temperatures
    Safe and Efficient Temperatures lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

    • Desired Temperatures:

    • Fresh food: 36-40°F

    • Freezer: 0-5°F

    • Measure temperatures in the middle of the fresh food and freezer compartments

    • Use standard or digital thermometers. A non-contact thermometer is not suitable for testing the temperatures inside refrigerators.

    http://www.aham.org/ht/a/GetDocumentAction/i/844


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    Beer Fridge and Freezer in the Heated Garage is an Expensive Choice

    A. Tamasin Sterner, Pure Energy


    Energy consumption of u s refrigerators
    Energy Consumption of U.S. Refrigerators Expensive Choice

    Source: Kinney and Belshe, Refrigerator Replacement in the Weatherization Program: Putting a Chill on Energy Waste.

    E Source, September 2001, page 1.


    Replacement criteria a good return on investment roi
    Replacement Criteria Expensive ChoiceA good return on investment (ROI)

    Annual Energy Use as determined by:

    • Nameplate information & look up in data base

    • Age

    • Refrigerant R-134a

    • Metering – 2 hours preferred

    • Broken – hardware failure, constant running, insufficient cooling


    Energy star database www energystar gov
    Energy Star Database Expensive Choicewww.energystar.gov


    Refrigerator dataplate input output www energystar gov
    Refrigerator Dataplate & Expensive ChoiceInput – Output www.energystar.gov

    Style

    Age

    Size

    Mfg

    Model

    8-Minute Rule


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    Calculating Payback Expensive Choice

    Fridge/Freezer Removal

    kWh/yr x $/kWh = operating cost/year

    = annual Savings for removing unit

    Replacement Savings

    old op cost – new op cost = savings/yr

    Purchase Price / savings $/yr = simple payback in years

    and “Savings” = tax free income!


    If you meter refrigerators
    If You Meter Refrigerators Expensive Choice

    Using the

    Brultech ECM-1200


    Kilowatt hour meters
    kiloWatt Hour Meters Expensive Choice


    Refrigerator testing tips
    Refrigerator Testing Tips Expensive Choice

    If you interrupt a compressor cycle, wait 8 minutes before plugging it back in

    If door is closed and you still have 40W on the meter, perhaps the door switch is broken or the anti-sweat heater is running

    The usual running range (compressor on) is 200-400 Watts. Newer refrigerators draw about 150 Watts

    Watch for defrost periods (~400 Watts)

    Unplug a refrigerator to clean the coils


    Automatic defrost cycle 14 4 ft 3 ge unit 355 btu for 13 45 minutes
    Automatic Defrost Cycle Expensive Choice(14.4 ft3 GE unit, 355 Btu for 13.45 minutes)

    Fresh food compartment

    temperature does not

    respond significantly

    to defrost cycle.

    How much time is required

    for freezer temperature

    recovery after defrost?

    Source: Kinney and Belshe, Refrigerator Replacement in the Weatherization Program: Putting a Chill on Energy Waste.

    E Source, September 2001, page 16.


    Refrigerator use examples
    Refrigerator Use Examples Expensive Choice


    Strategies to reduce refrigerator energy use
    Strategies to Reduce Refrigerator Energy Use Expensive Choice

    GET RID OF 2nd, 3rd, 4th UNITS

    Set controls to avoid over-cooling

    Keep it as cool as possible—away from stove, heat registers, direct sunlight

    Understand and use the energy saver or moisture control switch if present

    Be sure the door closes tightly after opening

    Keep containers covered

    Allow air to circulate freely around the unit and clean the condenser coils


    Epa watersense
    EPA WaterSense Expensive Choice

    http://www.epa.gov/watersense/


    Annual end use consumption ranges kwh1
    Annual End Use Consumption Ranges (kWh) Expensive Choice

    National averages trued up to PA utility program experience


    Household hot water use
    Household Hot Water Use Expensive Choice

    Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.2 Residential Sector Water Consumption September 2008

    Note(s): 1) Based analysis on 10 single family homes in Seattle, WA

    Sources: 2000 Residential End Uses of Hot Water in Single-Family Homes from Flow-Trace Analysis

    http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/docs/xls_pdf/8.2.4.pdf


    What affects hot water use
    What Affects Hot Water Use? Expensive Choice

    Leaks

    The number of occupants

    Difference (∆T) between incoming & hot water temperature

    Fixture flow rate

    Appliance type and style

    Water heater tank insulation

    Water heater energy factor (EF)

    Distribution piping design & location

    Climate and localized ambient temperature

    Time of use options


    Thermometers water temperature
    Thermometers: Water Temperature Expensive Choice

    Recommended: 120° F


    Too hot water is dangerous
    Too Expensive Choice Hot Water is Dangerous

    Children and elderly people are at greater risk for injury


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    Water Temperature Setting for Clothes Washer Expensive Choice(millions of households)

    • Wash Cycle

    • Hot............................. 6.2

    • Warm............................ 49.7

    • Cold............................ 28.2

    • Rinse Cycle

    • Hot............................. 1.4

    • Warm............................ 16.6

    • Cold............................ 66.1

    • No Washing Machine................ 22.9

    Source: www.projectlaundrylist.org

    http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2001/hc_pdf/usage/hc6-1a_climate2001.pdf


    Flow gallons per minute gpm
    Flow – Gallons per Minute (gpm) Expensive Choice

    OR… a stop watch & a gallon jug. If it fills in less than 2 minutes, it is likely a candidate for replacement!

    Showerheads:

    2.5 gpm the rule

    Less is better!

    Larry Kinney Photo

    MicroWeir


    Household water use not only hot
    Household Water Use – Not only Hot Expensive Choice

    http://www.energyfederation.org/consumer/default.php/cPath/27


    Strategies to reduce dhw use water waste
    Strategies to Reduce DHW Use & Water Waste Expensive Choice

    • Fix all leaks – hot or not

    • Keep thermostat at safe & efficient setting

    • Reduce standby losses

    • Limit use of hot water when doing laundry or cleaning

    • Turn off water when not using

    • Turn thermostat down or off for vacations

    • Manage outdoor water use: car washing, irrigation


    Use of clothes washer millions of u s households
    Use of Clothes Washer Expensive Choice(millions of U.S. households)

    Loads of Laundry Washed Each Week

    1 Load or Less.................. 6.8

    2 to 9 Loads.................... 65.1

    10 to 15 Loads.................. 9.6

    More than 15 Loads.............. 2.7

    www.projectlaundrylist.org

    www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2001/hc_pdf/usage/hc6-1a_climate2001.pdf


    Use of clothes dryer millions of u s households
    Use of Clothes Dryer Expensive Choice(millions of U.S. households)

    Use a Clothes Dryer............... 78.8

    Every Time Clothes are Washed... 63.5

    Some, but not All, Loads........ 12.7

    Used Infrequently............... 2.7

    No Clothes Dryer................28.2

    www.projectlaundrylist.org

    www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2001/hc_pdf/usage/hc6-1a_climate2001.pdf


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    Simple Facts Expensive Choice

    Dryers are responsible for 6-10% of domestic electricity use.

    www.projectlaundrylist.org


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    We Looked: We Saw… Expensive Choice

    • High occupancy

    • Anything running 24/7: air handler, lighting

    • Extra lighting

    • Multiple refrigerators and/or freezers

    • Broken appliances

    • Failing motors

    • Malfunctioning equip: well, septic, sump pumps

    • Heavy-duty battery chargers

    • Home entertainment rooms

    • Large/multiple aquariums

    • Off-site but connected loads

    • Waterbed heaters

    • Dehumidifiers set too high

    • Forgotten heaters in crawl spaces, garage, porches

    • Grow lights

    • Ice makers running without water hookup

    • Washers always using hot water

    • Ventilation equipment

    • Pressure tank problems

    • Current leaking to earth: water heater, yard line, well pump


    Example cost of operation
    Example: Cost of Operation Expensive Choice

    Ceiling fans, too if on 24/7

    Airhandler fans on 24/7 (@400-600W)

    500W x 24 hours x 365 days x .001kW/W = 4,380 kWh/yr @$.10 = $438 per year

    Radon exhaust fans. EPA IAQ house standards require them in attached garages. (@80-125W)

    100W x 8760 hrs/yr x .001kW/W = 876 kWh/yr @ $.10 = $88 per year



    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    High Number of Occupants Expensive Choice

    A. Tamasin Sterner, Pure Energy


    Influencing change
    Influencing Change Expensive Choice

    • Identify all possible opportunities to save

    • Put costs on operations and equipment use

    • Recognize what customer cares about and will/won’t do

    • Focus on biggest users

    • Prioritize where you spend your time

    • Present only options that make sense and offer a return on investment


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    Priorities: Recommended vs. Worthwhile: Actions Expensive Choice

    Worthwhile

    AirHandlerOn->Auto

    2ndFridge/FrzOff

    TurnDownTstat

    SetBackTstat

    24hrTVsOff

    CeilingFan

    ComputersOff

    24hrLightsOff

    ClothesLine

    24hrFansOff

    ColdWash

    LightsOff

    Michael Blasnik, “Ten Simple Things that Don’t Save Very Much Energy”

    ShorterShowers

    HumidiferOff

    VampirePowerStrips

    Marginal

    LidsOnPots

    FiltersMonthly

    Urban Legends

    CleanFridgeCoils

    FridgeDoorClose

    CeilingFan

    Waste?

    Ignored

    Recommended

    Note: Values based somewhat on difficulty in maintaining action


    Baseload is a waste pollution issue
    Baseload is a Waste & Pollution Issue Expensive Choice

    Over a five year period, an incandescent bulb uses electricity equal to 10 mg of mercury emissions from a coal-fired plant.

    A CFL may contain 1- 4 mg of mercury, but “uses” only 2.4 mg of emissions from electricity.

    Mercury in a CFL is contained and is recycled with proper disposal*. Once out of the smokestack mercury is uncontrollable.

    Electricity generated from coal-fired plants is only 33% efficient at the plug. The rest of the source energy is “wasted” in generation, transmission, & distribution losses.

    * www.Earth911.org

    U.S. EAP 2002


    Coal fired electricity generation
    Coal-Fired Electricity Generation Expensive Choice

    Greenhouse Gases

    GHG

    Carbon Dioxide

    Equivalency

    CO2e

    NOX

    SOX

    Mercury (Hg)

    Particulates

    Water waste:

    ½ to 1 gallon per kWh

    Photo: Rana Belshe


    A tamasin sterner pure energy lancaster pennsylvania 717 293 8990

    Feedback Welcome! Expensive Choice

    A. Tamasin Sterner

    www.PureEnergyAudits.com

    Rana Belshe

    715-334-2707

    ranabelshe@centurytel.net

    Thanks to: Larry Kinney

    www.synertechsystems.com

    Rick Karg

    www.karg.com


    Light fixtures in upscale home
    Light fixtures in upscale home Expensive Choice

    Major leakage to attic through fixtures

    Nine 75 Watt incandescent bulbs in kitchen ceiling

    Middle row retrofitted with CFLs: 25W, 20W, 13W

    Fix is 13W CFLs plus metal box 1 ft on a side in attic

    Larry Kinney, Synertech Systems Inc


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