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The work of GEM foil at CIAE. Li Ye, Xiaomei Li Science and Technology on Nuclear Data Laboratory China Institute of Atomic Energy 2011.08 weihai. outline. Patr 1: Motivation Part 2: The structure of GEM foil Part 3: Gem foil researches at CIAE

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The work of gem foil at ciae

The work of GEM foil at CIAE

Li Ye, Xiaomei Li

Science and Technology

on Nuclear Data Laboratory

China Institute of Atomic Energy

2011.08 weihai


Outline
outline

Patr 1: Motivation

Part 2: The structure of GEM foil

Part 3:Gem foil researches at CIAE

Part 4: THGEM detector and test at IHEP

Part 5: Next step



Jlab 12gev upgrade
JLab 12GeV Upgrade

Add 5 cryomodules

20 cryomodules

Add 5 cryomodules

20 cryomodules

New Hall

Enhanced capabilities

in existing Halls

Add arc


Solid spectrometer
SoLID spectrometer

Transversity

PVDIS

longitudinal


CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on


Part 2: CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so onThe Structure of GEM Foil


Gem gas electron multiplier structure
GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) Structure CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

  • Avalanche Gaseous Detector

  • Core part: GEM Foil

  • Sealed by the window and the substrate to form a pressure-tight gaseous chamber

Ar+CO2

Structure of detector with single GEM foil


Gem gas electron multiplier structure1
GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) Structure CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

Ar+CO2

Structure of detector with triple GEM foils


Gem foil structure
GEM Foil Structure CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

A sandwich structure

5-10μm copper foils on the surfaces of Kapton foils


Gem foil structure1
GEM Foil CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so onStructure

  • A dipole field will form when a voltage is applied on the two sides of the foil, gathering the field lines between the drift electrode and read-out electrode into holes.

  • Avalanche happens in holes

Field shape of a GEM foil

Kapton foils have excellent mechanical, physical and chemical properties. They will not melt, burn, and they are flexible.


Process f low d iagram of gem m anufacture
Process CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so onFlow Diagram of GEM Manufacture

1. Copper-plating on the two sides of Kapton foils.

a Clad the 5-10μm copper foils on the surfaces of Kapton foils by hot-pressing.

bMake 5-10μm copper foils on the surfaces of Kapton foils by vacuum deposition technique.

2.Photoresist coating.

Pull the Kapton foil out of 303 negative photoresist, the thickness can be controlled by the pulling-out speed.

3.Lithography

The patterns on the mask can be transferred to the photoresist layer, then wash it with developing solution.

4.Copper foil etching

Washing the foil with 30% iron trichloride(FeCl3)solution, then the pattern on the photoresist layer can be transferred to the copper foil layer, the depth of etching can be controlled by controlling the etching time.

5. Kapton foil etching

The most important step of the whole process flow diagram.

processes


From f oils to d etectors
From CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so onFoils to Detectors

GEM foil is flexible, it must be fixed by a frame, then it can be mounted on detectors.

Processes of Fixation

Fix by a fiberglass substrate

Dry in 40°C circumstances

Epoxy

Dry and solidify

A standard GEM foil


Read out
Read out CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

Electrodes collecting avalanche electrons have crucial effects on spatial resolution, time resolution and detection efficiency.

Principle of Read Out

Parallel Strips and Pads Array

Thin Film Transistor, TFT.

CMOS.

CCD.


Part 3: CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so onGEM FoilResearches at CIAE


Agreement with cern
Agreement with CERN CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

Prof. Xiaomei LI has visited CERN PCB factory and GEM group in Feb. 2011 .

We got two GEM foil samples and two mask plates from CERN.

CERN PCB factory has agreedthat they would transfer the GEM foil production technology to CIAE for free for the research of high energy physics. Now we are doing the paper work.


Gem f oil from cern
GEM CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so onFoil from CERN

10cm*10cm GEM foil sample


Gem m ask p late from cern
GEM M CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so onask Plate from CERN

10cm*10cm mask plate


Gem f oil researches at ciae
GEM CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so onFoil Researches at CIAE

1. Kapton foil covered with copper

has got from the manufacturer in

china.

2. Photoresist coating and masking

Cooperate with the factory, we can

make 70μm diameter 5cm* 5cm

mask plate

3. Copper etching ---some problems.

It will be solved after getting the

technology transfer from CERN.

4. Kapton etching

CIAE has over 20 years nuclear pore

foil production and kapton etching

experience.

5. Clean room for GEMconstruction


Mask plate m ade in china
Mask Plate CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so onMade in China

5cm*5cm mask plate


N uclear pore foil production at ciae
N CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so onuclear Pore Foil Production at CIAE

HI-13 accelerator

particles are accelerated by HI-13 then pass through the kapton foil,kapton etching,20um,control the hole size by etching time


Cleanroom
Cleanroom CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

our 1K level cleanroom for

etching,framing,cleaning and


PART 4: Thick-GEM (THGEM) detector CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on


Introduction of thick gem thgem detector
Introduction of CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so onThick-GEM (THGEM) detector

A. Breskin, M. Cortesi, R. Alon, J. Miyamoto & R. Chechik

Weizmann institute of science, Rehovot, Israel

radiation

e-s

EDrift

EHole

ETran

EHole

EInd

Readout anode


Difference between gem and thgem foils
Difference Between GEM and THGEM Foils CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

GEM

TH-GEM

  • Typical parameters:

    • 50mm Kapton

    • metal coated

    • Ø70mm holes

    • 100-200mm pitch

Manufactured by standard PCB techniques of precise drilling in G-10 (and other materials) and Cu etching.


Some results of thgem from breskin
Some Results of THGEM from Breskin CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

VHOLE [Volt]

single electrons

Single THGEM Gain 104-105

Double THGEMs gain 106-107

THGEM - Gain vs rim size

Double-THGEM

6 keV x-rays

104

pitch = 1 mm; diameter = 0.5 mm;

rim=40; 60; 80; 100; 120 mm

Recent Advances in Thick-GEM(THGEM) Detectors -Feb.2008 A. Breskin


Thgem foil made in china
THGEM Foil Made in China CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

THGEM from Breskin

Drills with milling cutter

40-120 mm rims

  • THGEM from IHEP

  • No such technology manufactories

  • Copper etching


Thick gem test at ihep
Thick-GEM Test at IHEP CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

0.2mm diameter THGEM according to CIAE requirement


Test of 0 2mm d iameter thgem
Test of 0.2mm CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so onDiameter THGEM


sdf CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

Thick-GEM Test Result

we lost some gain,but we save lots of money!cheap(~200 doller/m2)

breakdown won't damage the THGEM foil or electronics


Thick gem test result
Thick-GEM Test Result CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

Energy resolution is about20%


Thick gem test result1
Thick-GEM Test Result CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

stable in 24 hours

stability


Compare with gem detector
Compare with GEM detector CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

GEM THGEM

some technical difficulties most PCB factories can make

high cleanliness requirements you can put in your pocket

easily damaged durable

expensive cheap

high detection efficiency lower

spatial resolution 70μ estimate limit value is 300μm


Part 5 next step
Part 5:Next step CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on

Copper etching

Make read-out strips

RPC manufacture(see Shouyang HU’s talk)

Use APV25 electronic test GEM spatial resolutions

Make and test GEM and THGEM detectors using the foils made in China


Thank you ! CIAE,USTC,TSinghua,Peking,HUST,Shandong,Lanzhou,Huangshan,and so on


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