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Revision sheet. Chemistry C1a, Topic 5: Patterns in Properties & Topic 6: Making Changes. PERIODIC TABLE. Groups Groups 1-2 - Alkali metals Middle of table - Transition metals Group 7 Halogens Group 8 or 0 - Nobel gases/inert elements.

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Revision sheet l.jpg

Revision sheet

Chemistry C1a, Topic 5: Patterns in Properties & Topic 6: Making Changes


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PERIODIC TABLE

Groups

  • Groups 1-2 - Alkali metals

  • Middle of table - Transition metals

  • Group 7 Halogens

  • Group 8 or 0 - Nobel gases/inert elements

  • 1 2 transition metals 3 4 5 6 78or0

NB: Group 8 - Inert/noble gases are unreactive


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PERIODIC TABLE SUMMARY

  • PERIODS – ACROSS GROUPS – GO DOWN H/He – AT THE TOP

  • Elements in the same group have the similar chemical properties


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ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND COMPOUNDS

  • Element has one type of atom in it e.g. Cl2 or H2 or O2

  • Compound has different elements within it e.g. H2O (hydrogen and oxygen) or NH3 (Nitrogen and Hydrogen)

  • Atom is just one molecule of an element e.g. Cl or H or O


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FLAME TEST/Reaction with NaOH

GROUP 1

  • Potassium- lilac/no precipitate formed

  • Sodium – yellow/no precipitate formed

  • Lithium - red flame/white precipitate

    Group 2

  • Calcium - red flame/white precipitate

  • Barium- green flame

    Transition metals

  • Copper – blue/green/ pale blue precipitate

  • Lead – blue/white/white precipitate

  • Iron (II) – pale green precipitate

  • (Higher – Iron (III) – orange precipitate)


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TEST FOR THE 5 COMMON GASES

  • Ammonia – red litmas paper  blue

  • Chloride – bleaches litmas paper

  • Carbon dioxide – limewater cloudy

  • Hydrogen – ‘pop’ with a lit splint

  • Oxygen – relights a glowing splint

  • When above is reacted with water

  • Element + water → Element hydroxide + hydrogen


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REACTIVITY SERIES

  • Most reactive  least reactive

  • caesium Cs  rubidium Rb  potassium K sodium Na  lithium Li  calcium Camagnesium Mg aluminium Al zinc Zn iron Fe Gold Au silver Ag

  • RULE: An metal is more reactive if it is further to the left of the periodic table or further down in the group (not including groups 3-8)


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METAL ORES

  • Most metals are found in ores

  • Metal have to be separated from their oxides

  • They are extracted using two methods (linked to the reactivity series)

  • Electrolysis – K, Na, Ca, Mg Al (reactive)

  • Reacting with carbon – Zn, Fe, Sn & Pb (less reactive)


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TYPES OF REACTIONS

  • PHYSICAL – changing of states

  • EXOTHERMIC – gives out heat

  • ENDOTHERMIC – take in heat from it surrounding

  • THERMAL DECOMPOSITION – is a chemical reaction where a single compound breaks up into two or more simpler compounds or elements when heated

  • DEHYDRATION – chemical reaction that has water as a product

  • HYDRATION – have water as a reaction


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SALTS

  • Chemical name for common salt is sodium Chloride

  • acids with alkali = neutralisation

  • oxides, hydroxides and carbonates all react with acids to produce salts

  • insoluble salts are prepared by mixing two solutions and forms a precipitate

  • ACID + METAL HYDROXIDE/OXIDE  SALT + WATER = NEUTRALISATION


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HIGHER - Protons, electrons and neutrons

  • Number of Protons = atomic number of the element (in top left hand corner of the periodic table)

  • Number of Electrons = Protons

  • Number of Neutrons = Mass Number - Atomic Number – Therefore can be different


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HIGHER - Reactivity Halogens

  • Fluorine (atomic number 9) > Chlorine (atomic number 17) > Bromine (atomic number 35) >Iodine (atomic number 53)

  • Therefore chlorine will displace Bromine and Iodine

  • Same electron in outer shell give similar chemical properties

  • As the atomic numbers of the halogens increase, they become less reactive


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