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Revision sheet. Chemistry C1a, Topic 5: Patterns in Properties & Topic 6: Making Changes. PERIODIC TABLE. Groups Groups 1-2 - Alkali metals Middle of table - Transition metals Group 7 Halogens Group 8 or 0 - Nobel gases/inert elements.

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revision sheet

Revision sheet

Chemistry C1a, Topic 5: Patterns in Properties & Topic 6: Making Changes

periodic table
PERIODIC TABLE

Groups

  • Groups 1-2 - Alkali metals
  • Middle of table - Transition metals
  • Group 7 Halogens
  • Group 8 or 0 - Nobel gases/inert elements
  • 1 2 transition metals 3 4 5 6 78or0

NB: Group 8 - Inert/noble gases are unreactive

periodic table summary
PERIODIC TABLE SUMMARY
  • PERIODS – ACROSS GROUPS – GO DOWN H/He – AT THE TOP
  • Elements in the same group have the similar chemical properties
elements atoms and compounds
ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND COMPOUNDS
  • Element has one type of atom in it e.g. Cl2 or H2 or O2
  • Compound has different elements within it e.g. H2O (hydrogen and oxygen) or NH3 (Nitrogen and Hydrogen)
  • Atom is just one molecule of an element e.g. Cl or H or O
flame test reaction with naoh
FLAME TEST/Reaction with NaOH

GROUP 1

  • Potassium- lilac/no precipitate formed
  • Sodium – yellow/no precipitate formed
  • Lithium - red flame/white precipitate

Group 2

  • Calcium - red flame/white precipitate
  • Barium- green flame

Transition metals

  • Copper – blue/green/ pale blue precipitate
  • Lead – blue/white/white precipitate
  • Iron (II) – pale green precipitate
  • (Higher – Iron (III) – orange precipitate)
test for the 5 common gases
TEST FOR THE 5 COMMON GASES
  • Ammonia – red litmas paper  blue
  • Chloride – bleaches litmas paper
  • Carbon dioxide – limewater cloudy
  • Hydrogen – ‘pop’ with a lit splint
  • Oxygen – relights a glowing splint
  • When above is reacted with water
  • Element + water → Element hydroxide + hydrogen
reactivity series
REACTIVITY SERIES
  • Most reactive  least reactive
  • caesium Cs  rubidium Rb  potassium K sodium Na  lithium Li  calcium Camagnesium Mg aluminium Al zinc Zn iron Fe Gold Au silver Ag
  • RULE: An metal is more reactive if it is further to the left of the periodic table or further down in the group (not including groups 3-8)
metal ores
METAL ORES
  • Most metals are found in ores
  • Metal have to be separated from their oxides
  • They are extracted using two methods (linked to the reactivity series)
  • Electrolysis – K, Na, Ca, Mg Al (reactive)
  • Reacting with carbon – Zn, Fe, Sn & Pb (less reactive)
types of reactions
TYPES OF REACTIONS
  • PHYSICAL – changing of states
  • EXOTHERMIC – gives out heat
  • ENDOTHERMIC – take in heat from it surrounding
  • THERMAL DECOMPOSITION – is a chemical reaction where a single compound breaks up into two or more simpler compounds or elements when heated
  • DEHYDRATION – chemical reaction that has water as a product
  • HYDRATION – have water as a reaction
salts
SALTS
  • Chemical name for common salt is sodium Chloride
  • acids with alkali = neutralisation
  • oxides, hydroxides and carbonates all react with acids to produce salts
  • insoluble salts are prepared by mixing two solutions and forms a precipitate
  • ACID + METAL HYDROXIDE/OXIDE  SALT + WATER = NEUTRALISATION
higher protons electrons and neutrons
HIGHER - Protons, electrons and neutrons
  • Number of Protons = atomic number of the element (in top left hand corner of the periodic table)
  • Number of Electrons = Protons
  • Number of Neutrons = Mass Number - Atomic Number – Therefore can be different
higher reactivity halogens
HIGHER - Reactivity Halogens
  • Fluorine (atomic number 9) > Chlorine (atomic number 17) > Bromine (atomic number 35) >Iodine (atomic number 53)
  • Therefore chlorine will displace Bromine and Iodine
  • Same electron in outer shell give similar chemical properties
  • As the atomic numbers of the halogens increase, they become less reactive
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