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Concepts of Multimedia Processing and Transmission. IT 481, Lecture #12 Dennis McCaughey, Ph.D. 23 April, 2007. Broadcast Network Schematic. SFN: All transmitters operate on a single Radio Frequency (RF) MFN: Each transmitter operates on a different frequency. Frequency Usage Schematic.

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Concepts of multimedia processing and transmission

Concepts of Multimedia Processing and Transmission

IT 481, Lecture #12

Dennis McCaughey, Ph.D.

23 April, 2007


Broadcast network schematic
Broadcast Network Schematic

  • SFN: All transmitters operate on a single Radio Frequency (RF)

  • MFN: Each transmitter operates on a different frequency

IT 481, Fall 2006


Frequency usage schematic
Frequency Usage Schematic

IT 481, Fall 2006


Terrestrial drivers
Terrestrial Drivers

  • Terrestrial broadcasts are omnidirectional

  • Multiple copies of the same signal may arrive at the receiver with slightly different delays and thus interfere with each other

    • Multipath = (direct path signal + reflected signal + refracted signal)

    • Intersymbol Interference (ISI)

    • Limits the bit rate that may be achieved

IT 481, Fall 2006


Multipath
Multipath

IT 481, Fall 2006



Overhead bits
Overhead Bits

IT 481, Fall 2006


Cofdm modulator
COFDM Modulator

IT 481, Fall 2006



Operation
Operation

  • The OFDM modulator consists of the block in the diagram that is labeled 'IDFT', which stands for inverse discrete Fourier transform.

    • In reality, the actual process carried out is the inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT), because the IFFT is, as the name suggest, a fast way to calculate the IDFT.

  • The IDFT calculates the following equation:

IT 481, Fall 2006


Cofdm receiver
COFDM Receiver

IT 481, Fall 2006



Operation1
Operation

  • The signals are received at the antenna,

  • The signals are I/Q down-converted from RF to generate the real (I) and imaginary (Q) streams,

  • Low-pass filtered (LPF) and digitized in the analogue to digital converters (ADC, one ADC for each stream).

  • Following the ADC, the cyclic prefix is stripped off and the remaining sampled values are serial to parallel converted and once there is a full block of samples

  • The DFT is calculated (in reality the FFT is calculated as the FFT requires far fewer multiplications to be carried out than the DFT).

IT 481, Fall 2006


Symbol generation
Symbol Generation

IT 481, Fall 2006


Example
Example

  • N = 5 bits are mapped into 1symbol of duration Ts

  • Each symbol bit is modulated onto a different carrier frequency using on-off keying (OOK)

  • Carriers are DC, fs, 2fs, 3fs, 4fs

    • fs = 1/Ts

  • Bits Per Carrier

    BPSK = 1

    QPSK = 2 (4QAM)

    16QAM = 4

    64QAM = 8

  • Bits Per Symbol

  • BPSK = N

  • QPSK = 2N

  • 16QAM = 4N

  • 64QAM = 8N

IT 481, Fall 2006


Qpsk and qam constellations
QPSK and QAM Constellations

IT 481, Fall 2006


Qpsk bit rates
QPSK Bit Rates

IT 481, Fall 2006


Receiver operation
Receiver Operation

  • Receiver waits a short period of time called the guard interval, Tg, before starting to process the received symbol

    • Ensure receipt of all delayed versions of the direct path signal

  • Processing entails

    • Determining which of the N= 5 carriers are received

    • Demodulating the subcarrier modulated symbols to recover the bits (QPSK, 16QAM etc)

IT 481, Fall 2006


Why orthogonality
Why Orthogonality?

  • If the subcarriers are orthogonal they do not interfere with each other

    • Simplifies the construction and recovery of the bit-symbol-bit stream sequence

  • If the subcarriers are cleverly spaced this orthogonality is preserved in the presence of multipath

  • Orthogonality is implemented by spacing the subcarriers at multiples of 1/Ts

IT 481, Fall 2006


What is orthogonality
What is Orthogonality?

  • Two signals x and y are orthogonal if:

  • If the two signals do not overlap in either time or frequency they are orthogonal

  • However the important case here is when they do.

IT 481, Fall 2006


Achieving orthogonality

Need to define two functions

Useful Properties

Achieving Orthogonality

  • Fourier Transform Pairs

IT 481, Fall 2006


Fourier transform pairs
Fourier Transform Pairs

IT 481, Fall 2006




Frequency domain symbol
Frequency Domain Symbol

IT 481, Fall 2006


Guard interval

Guard Interval avoids intersymbol interference

It lowers the maximum encoded bit rate

Typically Tg = Ts/4

For MFM networks

For SFN networks

Guard Interval

IT 481, Fall 2006


Example1
Example

  • Since a FFT and IFFT are used the nearest powers of 2 are:

  • 2048 (1705)

  • 8192 (6817)

IT 481, Fall 2006


Dvb t h transmitter
DVB-T/H Transmitter

NOKIA

IT 481, Fall 2006


Dvb t frame format
DVB-T Frame Format

IT 481, Fall 2006


4 carrier example
4-Carrier example

  • Frame = [00,01,10,11]

  • Modulation = QPSK (4QAM)

IT 481, Fall 2006


I signal plots 0 ts
I Signal Plots [0,Ts]

IT 481, Fall 2006


Q signal plots 0 ts
Q Signal Plots [0,Ts]

IT 481, Fall 2006


Composite signal 0 ts
Composite Signal [0,Ts]

IT 481, Fall 2006


Matlab code

N = 4;

M = 4;

msg_b = [0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1]

msg_b = reshape(msg_b,2,[ ])

msg_d = [1,2]*msg_b(:,:)

msg_a = qammod(msg_d,M);

A = diag(msg_a);

x = zeros(N,128);

for k = 1:N

x(k,:) = linspace(0,i*(k-1)*2*pi(),128);

end

y = ones(1,N)*A*exp(x);

plot(real(y),'-r','LineWidth',2)

hold on

plot(imag(y),'-b','LineWidth',2)

legend('I','Q','Fontweight','bold')

plot(zeros(1,128),'--k','LineWidth',2)

hold off

grid on

title('Cumulative I and Q Components','Fontsize',14)

grid on

z = (fft(y));

s = qamdemod(z(1:N),M)

s = dec2bin(s)

s = reshape(s',1,[ ])

Scale = eye(N)/sqrt(2);

Scale(1,1) = 1;

figure;

hold on

plot(real(Scale*A*exp(x))','LineWidth',2)

ylim([-1.1 1.1])

title('In-Phase Carriers','Fontsize',14)

legend('00','01','10','11')

plot(zeros(1,128),'--k','LineWidth',2)

grid on

hold off

figure;

hold on

plot(imag(Scale*A*exp(x))','LineWidth',2)

ylim([-1.1 1.1])

title('Quadrature Carriers','Fontsize',14)

legend('00','01','10','11')

plot(zeros(1,128),'--k','LineWidth',2)

grid on

hold off

Matlab Code

IT 481, Fall 2006


References
References

  • “MPEG-4 Natural Video Coding - An overview” Touradj Ebrahimi* and Caspar Horne**

  • J. Henriksson, “DVB-H, Standards Principles and Services”, Nokia HUT Seminar T-111.590 Helsinki Finland 2.24.2005

  • F. Halsall, “Multimedia Communications”, Addison-Wesley, New York, 2001

IT 481, Fall 2006


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