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Entry 4211/12. Draw each structure Identify the Chromatin, Chromatid , and Chromosome. C. A. B. Nuclear Membrane. Sexual reproduction. Fertilization. Sexual: two sources of genetic material, makes four haploid sex cells (gametes) Gametes: sperm and egg

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Entry 42 11 12

Entry 4211/12

Draw each structure

Identify the Chromatin, Chromatid, and Chromosome

C

A

B

Nuclear Membrane


Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction

Fertilization

Sexual:two sources of genetic material, makes four haploid sex cells (gametes)

Gametes: sperm and egg

Advantages: genetic variation,

Disadvantages: requires more time for mating, risk of unfavorable genetic combinations


Meiosis requires 2 divisions phases the same as mitosis

Meiosis:Requires 2 divisions: Phases the same as Mitosis

  • Meiosis II

    • (2nd division): Reduces the genetic material

  • Result: 4 genetically different haploid cells- these cells are GAMETES (sex cells- egg and sperm)

Meiosis Animation

  • Meiosis I (1st division):

    • Reduces the chromosome number;

  • Result: 2 genetically different daughter cells

  • (1n) 23 chromsomes but are still doubled)


The entire process of meiosis

The entire process of Meiosis


Meiosis allows for lots of variation differences

Meiosis allows for lots of variation (differences)

  • Variation as a result of:

    • Crossing Over: a part of one chromosome can switch places with the same part another homologous chromosome .

    • Random Assortment: of chromosomes allows a mix of chromosomes from both parents

    • Random Fertilization :

      of any egg by any sperm allows for lots of variation


Meiosis square dance

Meiosis Square Dance

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iCL6d0OwKt8&feature=related


Problems with meiosis

Problems with Meiosis:

Karyotype- a picture of the chromosomes

  • Mutations: changes in the DNA before meiosis or mitosis begins

  • Nondisjunction: homologous chromosomes do not separate resulting in one too many or one too few chromosomes

    • Ex. Down syndrome : trisomy 21

  • Nondisjunction Animation


Nondisjunction

Nondisjunction


Comparison of mitosis and meiosis

Comparison of mitosis and Meiosis


Meiosis summary

Meiosis Summary

  • Include the following words in a summary:

    • Meiosis,

    • sexual reproduction

    • homologous chromosomes

    • diploid parent cell

    • haploid daughter cells

    • 4 gametes

    • crossing-over

    • genetic recombination

    • Variation


Ticket out the door

Ticket Out the Door

Word Bank

TraitsAsexualSexualTwo

FourDiploidMitosis

Crossing overInterphaseHaploid

The number of cells produced as a result of meiosis is ________.

Homologous chromosomes code for same ________.

Meiosis is used for _________ reproduction.

The process that allows for genetic variation is called _________ during meiosis.

During meiosis the chromosome number must be reduced by half, creating a ________ cell


Entry 43 11 13

Entry 4311/13

  • Pick up the crossing over handout on the front demo table.

  • We will complete with a partner and then paste in the journal under entry 43


Ticket out the door1

Ticket out the door

1. How many cells are produced as a result of Meiosis?

2. If a parent cell has 4 chromosomes and goes through MEIOSIS, how many chromosomes would the daughter cells contain?

3. Meiosis is used for (sexual or asexual) reproduction?

4. EXPLAIN the process of crossing-over.


Entry 40 4 16

Entry 40 4/16

Original DNA: TTT GAC CCA

Mutated DNA: TTT GAG CCC A

  • Describe the type of mutation that occurred.

  • How will this effect the amino acids?


The study of heredity transfer of characteristics from parent to offspring

The study of heredity, transfer of characteristics from parent to offspring.

Unit 6.2 Genetics and Inheritance


Entry 44 11 14

Entry 44 11/14

Copy the vocabulary in your journal

Genotype vs. Phenotype

  • Genotype is the genetic makeup (AA, Aa, or aa)

  • Phenotype is the physical trait, a result of the genotype

Allele

For any trait, such as hair color, there are different forms of the protein that create the different hair colors. Each different form is called an allele. We use capital letters to represent dominant alleles and lower case letters to represent the recessive alleles.


Agenda

Agenda

  • Notes

  • Human Characteristic Handout

  • Mendel, Meiosis, & Peas Activity

  • Bio Apps 6.1 DUE TOMORROW

  • QUIZ ON MEIOSIS AND MENDEL TOMORROW


A the father of genetics

A. The Father of Genetics:

  • Gregor Mendel is known as the Father of Genetics.

    • He studied pea plants, because they were easy to observe and reproduce.

    • Knowing that the male part of the plant produced sperm, and that the female part produced the egg, he was able to join the two reproductive cells. This is called fertilization.


B inheritance of chromosomes

B. Inheritance of chromosomes

  • Egg + sperm  zygote (earliest stage of development)

    (meiosis)  (fertilization)  (mitosis and development)

zygote

fertilization

egg

meiosis

mitosis &development

sperm


B inheritance of chromosomes1

B. Inheritance of Chromosomes

  • Chromosomes exist in pairs, one from sperm and one from egg. Known as homologous pairs

  • A section of DNA within the chromosome that contains the info to make proteins called a gene. Genes determine our traits.

  • A trait is any physical or physiological characteristics.

    • Ex: eye color, blood type


  • Entry 42 11 12

    • We will all receive the same type of genes but we can get different versions of a gene called an Allele.

      • Ex: Gene: thumb type. Alleles: Hitchhikers thumb or straight thumb.

    • Alleles are represented by letters. A dominant allele is written with a capital. A recessive allele is written with a lowercase.

      • Ex: Hitchhikers thumb (A) or straight thumb (a).

      • *Dominant genes masks/hides recessive.


    Entry 42 11 12

    • Genotype describes the 2 alleles you received from mom and dad.

      • Homozygous means you received identical copies (purebred)

        • AA – homozygous dominant

        • aa - homozygous recessive

    • Heterozygous means you got one dominant and one recessive (hybrid); Aa.

      • 2 people can have the same appearance but have different genetics: AAvsAa.

  • Phenotype describes how the alleles are portrayed or look physically.


  • Mendel s pea assignment

    Mendel’s Pea assignment

    • Use Mozilla Firefox to complete assignment


    Ticket out the door2

    Ticket out the Door

    1&2 - Identify which picture below represents the phenotype and which represents the genotype?

    • Match the following…

      • 3. ____ HeterozygousA.) BB

      • 4. ____ Homozygous Dominant B.) Bb

      • 5. ____ Homozygous RecessiveC. ) bb

    Picture A

    Picture B

    BB


    From gene to protein

    From gene to protein

    protein

    transcription

    translation


    Entry 42 4 18

    Entry 424/18

    1&2 - Identify which picture below represents the phenotype and which represents the genotype?

    • Match the following…

      • 3. ____ HeterozygousA.) BB

      • 4. ____ Homozygous Dominant B.) Bb

      • 5. ____ Homozygous RecessiveC. ) bb

    Picture A

    Picture B

    BB


    D mendel s three principles

    D. Mendel’s Three Principles

    • 1. Principle of Dominance: dominant alleles can mask/ hide recessive alleles


    D mendel s principles

    D. Mendel’s Principles

    • 2. Principle of Segregation: during meiosis the alleles separate so each parent can only pass on one allele per trait. We get half of our genes from each parent.


    D mendel s principles1

    D. Mendel’s Principles

    3. Principle of Independent Assortment: genes on separate chromosomes are passed on independently (randomly) from one another.


    E genetic probability

    E. Genetic Probability

    • Punnett squares are used to predict the outcome of fertilization between the gametes.

      • The sides of the Punnett square are labeled with the genotype from each parent (sperm and egg).

    • Monohybrid Cross- involves only 1 trait.

    • Dihybrid Cross- involves 2 traits.


    Mendelian genetics

    Mother

    H h

    Mendelian Genetics

    Ex: Huntington’s disease breaks down the nervous system. It is a dominant trait. If a heterozygous woman marries a man without Huntington's what is the chance their kids will have the disease? _______%

    • What is the phenotypic ratio (compare the result of the genes)?

    • What is the genotypic ratio (compare the genetic combinations)?

    Father

    ? ?


    Ticket out the door3

    Ticket out the door

    • A genetic engineer is going to cross two watermelon plants to produce seeds for a spring planting. He is breeding for size, and wants to have as many watermelons with the phenotype for long shape as possible. In watermelons, the allele for short shape (R) is dominant to the allele for long shape (r). Would crossing a watermelon homozygous recessive for the trait with a watermelon heterozygous for the trait give the most long watermelons possible? Explain your answer using Punnett Squares


    Entry 42 11 12

    • A genetic engineer is going to cross two watermelon plants to produce seeds for a spring planting. He is breeding for size, and wants to have as many watermelons with the phenotype for long shape as possible. In watermelons, the allele for short shape (R) is dominant to the allele for long shape (r). Would crossing a watermelon homozygous recessive for the trait with a watermelon heterozygous for the trait give the most long watermelons possible? Explain your answer using Punnett Squares


    Genetics group practice 10 punnett squares

    Genetics Group Practice- 10 punnett squares

    • Draw a card from the gene stack and one from the parent stack

    • Complete the cross by doing a punnett square (alleles are already assigned, see your instruction sheet)

    • Complete the Genotype and phenotype ratios

    • Write what the children will look like:

      • 25% blond hair

      • 75% brown hair


    Entry 43 4 19

    Entry 43 4/19

    Pick up the assignment on LAB STATION 1

    Complete

    Paste in Journal


    Entry 45 11 18

    Entry 45 11/18

    • In tomatoes, red fruit (R) is dominant over yellow fruit (r). A plant that is homozygous for red fruit is crossed with a plant that has yellow fruit. What would be the genotype and phenotype of the P1 generation and the genotypic and phenotypic ratio of the F1 generation?

    • If two of the F1 generation from the above cross were mated, what would be the genotypes and phenotypes of the F2?


    Lockdown procedure

    Lockdown procedure

    • Dr. Henage’s kids will report to Classroom to the right of the smartboard

    • Mrs. Wells-Lewis kids will report to C143 (left of smartboard)


    Agenda1

    Agenda…

    • Notes

    • Practice sheet (will go over together)

    • Activity (you will complete with a partner)

    • THURSDAY YOU WILL HAVE A TEST ON GENETICS

    • Bio Apps will be due Thursday

    • Ticket out the Door


    5 types non mendelian inheritance

    5 types Non-Mendelian Inheritance

    • These traits are NOT just dominant or recessive, there for they do not follow the Mendelian genetics.


    Entry 42 11 12

    1.Codominance: Both alleles are equally dominant and will be expressed (in heterozygote).

    • Phenotype: both versions of the trait show in the heterozygote

    • Genotype: use 2 different letters.

    • Ex: Sickle Cell Anemia is a codominant disorder. This means that you will have normal disk shaped cells (N), and sickle shaped cells (S).

      • 3 Possibilities:

        * Heterozygous genotype is resistant to malaria.*


    Entry 42 11 12

    2. Incomplete Dominance- neither allele is completely dominant to mask the other.

    • Phenotype: the heterozygote results in a blended phenotype.

    • Genotype: Capital letters for both alleles and use a prime (‘) symbol.

    • Ex: In humans this happens in the genes for curly hair. H= curly, H’= straight. So…


    Ticket out the door4

    Ticket Out the Door

    • If feather color in a species of birds is codominant, cross a white bird with a black and white spotted bird. List all possible phenotypes.

    • If fur color is incompletely dominant, cross a gray fur dog with a black dog. List all possible phenotypes.


    Entry 46 11 19

    Entry 46 11/19

    • Pick up practice problems on Book Case complete and paste/tape into journal. (Incomplete/Codominant Probs.)


    Agenda2

    Agenda

    • Complete the introduction to Blood types on page 23 in your packet.

    • Notes

    • Practice Problems

    • Bio Apps 6.2 Due Thursday

    • Test on 6.2 Thursday


    3 multiple alleles more than two alleles exist for a trait

    3. Multiple Alleles: more than two alleles exist for a trait

    • Blood Types: A, AB, B, O


    4 sex linked traits are you colorblind

    4. Sex-linked Traits: Are you colorblind??


    Entry 42 11 12

    4. Sex-Linked: trait found on the X sex chromosome.Hemophilia and Color blindness are recessive disorders.

    • Phenotype:

      • Female – less likely but can express a sex-linked trait

      • Male –express sex-linked traits more often because they have only one X sex chromosomes


    5 polygenetic traits that depend on many genes and create a range of phenotypes

    5. Polygenetic- Traits that depend on many genes and create a range of phenotypes.

    • NO PUNNETT SQUARE can be used.

    • Instead these traits can be graphed using a bell-shaped curve. There is a wide range of differences.

    • Ex. Height, skin color, weight


    Entry 42 11 12

    • You have been given one blood sample to test.

    • Follow the directions on the sheet to test your sample.

    • Record your results on your answer sheet.

    • Record Results on Board- Type of Sample (ex: suspect #1) and your results


    Ticket out the door5

    Ticket Out the Door

    • 1. A sex-linked trait is found on the __ chromosome.

    • 2. Cross a mom with type AB blood with a dad who is type O. List all possible phenotypes.


    Entry 45 4 23

    Entry 454/23

    • Pick up practice problems on

      Lab Station 1 complete and paste in journal.

      multiple alleles/sex linked


    Progress check

    Progress Check

    • Pick up papers at LAB STATIONS

    • After progress check I will put up your journal entry.


    Entry 46 4 24

    Entry 464/24

    • Aneuploidy

    • Having too many or too few chromosomes

    • Causes by mistakes in Meiosis--nondisjunction

    Autosomal Trait

    Trait inherited on one of the first 22 pairs of chromosomes…….NOT sex-linked


    H genetic disorders

    H. Genetic Disorders

    • Huntington’s disease- found on chromosome 4, causes brain to break down, loss of muscle coordination, and symptoms often appear in your 40’s.

      • Pattern of Inheritance: Autosomal Dominant

    • Sickle-cell Anemia- leads to misshapen red blood cells, leads to poor circulation and pain.

      • Pattern of Inheritance: AutosomalCodominant (both versions of trait are equally dominant)

      • Heterozygous individuals are resistant to malaria

      • Primarily in African-Americans


    Entry 42 11 12

    3. Cystic fibrosis- increased mucus in lungs and digestive tract,.

    • Pattern of Inheritance: Autosomal Recessive

    • Mostly affects Caucasians.

      4. Tay-Sach’s disease- breaks down central nervous system leading to premature death (die before 2).

    • Pattern of Inheritance: Autosomal Recessive

    • Found in Jewish and Pennsylvania Dutch populations.

      5. PKU (phenylketonuria)- Inability to break down the amino acid phenylalanine,

    • Can build up in brain and lead to decreased mental function

    • Pattern of Inheritance: Autosomal Recessive

    • Can be controlled by diet


    Entry 42 11 12

    6. Hemophilia- blood does not clot normally

    • Pattern of Inheritance: Recessive sex-linked disorder

    • Mainly affects males. Carriers are females only.

      7. Colorblindness

    • Pattern of Inheritance: Recessive sex-linked disorder

    • Mainly affects males. Female carriers only.


    I chromosomal disorders

    I. Chromosomal Disorders

    • Inherited due to problems with the ENTIRE chromosome.

    • Caused by a mistake in MEIOSIS called nondisjunction. Nondisjunction is when chromosomes fail to separate properly. This mistake leads to Aneuploidy- an incorrect (extra or missing) number of chromosomes in a fertilized zygote.


    Non disjunction causes aneuploidy

    Non disjunction causes aneuploidy


    Entry 42 11 12

    1. Down’s Syndrome- is caused by an extra chromosome #21 (trisomy 21). Causes mental retardation, heart defects, and an enlarged tongue.


    Entry 42 11 12

    2. Klinefelter’s Syndrome- male has an extra X-chromosome (XXY).

    • Male but develops female secondary sex characteristics, and usually sterile.

    • Use testosterone therapy to treat.

      3. Turner’s Syndrome- female with ONLY one X-chromosome (XO).

    • Female with underdeveloped gonads, infertile.


    Entry 47 4 25

    Entry 47 4/25

    • Identify each disorder as Autosomal Disorder or Chromosomal Disorder

      • The chromosomes fail to separate leading to Down Syndrome

      • The gene that controls red blood cells is found on chromosome pair 11 sickled shaped cells can result causing poor blood circulation.

      • A female only inherits one X chromosome and results in underdeveloped female characteristics


    Entry 42 11 12

    NATURE vs NURTURE

    Good intro video


    J nature vs nurture

    J. Nature vs. Nurture:

    • Nature is heredity (your DNA).

    • Nurture is your environment

    • Scientist debate: Which has a greater influence?

    • Example: We use identical twins to study the effects of the environment on genes.

    • Diet: can stop the progression of PKU, and limit the risk for genetic predispositions such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain cancers.

    • Environmental Toxins: environmental factors such as UV radiation or tobacco can directly change our genes (lung/mouth cancer, skin cancer)


    Ticket out the door6

    Ticket out the Door

    How can your environment influence gene expression?

    ____Turner’s Syndrome A. Sex Linked Disorder

    ____Sickle Cell AnemiaB. Autosomal Chromosome Disorder

    ____Colorblindness C. Sex Chromosome Disorder

    ____Down’s SyndromeD. AutosomalCodominant Disorder


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