Eng 101 102
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ENG 101/102. Quotation, Paraphrase, And Summary. Quotation.

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ENG 101/102

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Eng 101 102

ENG 101/102

Quotation, Paraphrase,

And Summary


Quotation

Quotation

  • Use the exact words, enclosed within quotation marks. Use an ellipsis . . . to indicate information which you have omitted; use brackets [ ] to indicate information which you have changed or added. (NOTE: MLA format requires that you use an ellipsis enclosed in brackets for omitted information: [. . .]. Cite the original source & page within the text.


Paraphrase

Paraphrase

  • Using your own word choice AND syntax (sentence structure), restate what the original idea conveyed. Consult a grammar handbook about the steps to take in order to avoid plagiarism. A paraphrase is often as long as or even longer than the original. Cite the original source, page within the text.


Summary

Summary

  • This is similar to a paraphrase in all respects except that it is much shorter. Consult a grammar handbook about the steps to take to avoid plagiarism. Cite the original source & page within the text.


Sample

Sample

  • The following slides will demonstrate some ways to add information from an original source into your own work as a direct quotation, as a paraphrase, and as a summary.


Original source

Original Source

  • from The Daily News Leader, p. B8, Thursday, November 5, 1998

    Sleepless Surgeons Are a Cut Below, Study Finds

    By Susan Okie, The Washington Post

  • Surgeons’ dexterity suffers after a sleepless night, according to a British study that used a virtual-reality surgical simulator to measure the effect of sleep deprivation on doctors’ operating skills.

  • Six surgeons-in-training were tested with the simulator, which was designed to allow doctors to practice the procedure for removing the gallbladder using a laparoscope. (A laparoscope is a special viewing and operating instrument inserted through a small incision.)

  • The less sleep the surgeons had, the slower and more error prone they were. Those who had stayed awake all night made 20 percent more mistakes and took 14 percent longer to complete the procedures being tested.


Using a quotation

Using a QUOTATION

I first decide to incorporate

  • in direct quotation format:


Incorporating a direct quotation i

Incorporating a Direct Quotation I

. . . . .While many professionals argue that they can do just fine without getting a full night’s sleep, most recent studies indicate otherwise. For example, journalist Susan Okie, staff writer for The Washington Post, reporting on the results of a British study, emphasized that “[the] less sleep the surgeons had, the slower and more error prone they were” (B8) confirming what many advocates for eliminating “double shifts” for physicians have warned us about: people functioning on limited sleep simply perform less well than they would after adequate sleep.


Incorporating a direct quotation ii

Incorporating a Direct Quotation II

. . . . Recent news reports and sleep studies have indicated, sadly and tragically, that the lack of sleep has direct effects on the activities those weary people try to perform. As a recent report indicated, “[surgeons’] dexterity suffers after a sleepless night. . .[causing those] who had stayed awake all night [to make] 20 percent more mistakes and [to take] 14 percent longer to complete their procedure. . .” (Okie B8). Thus, although we often hear professionals in all fields boasting of their abilities to “pull all nighters” or to handle “double shifts,” as if sleeplessness were a badge of honor, it’s clear that tired physicians have the potential to cause harm to patients whom they intend to heal.


Using a paraphrase

Using a PARAPHRASE

I decide to incorporate the information as a paraphrase.

SO, the first thing I have to do is to WRITE an acceptable paraphrase.


Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing

Let’s choose just one portion:

ORIGINAL: “the less sleep the surgeons had, the slower and more error prone they were”


Acceptable paraphrases

Acceptable Paraphrases

Follow the guidelines in your grammar handbook or handouts; remember to use YOUR own word choices and try to re-arrange the sentence structure so that it’s not like the original.

One successful technique is to read the original material. Then, put it aside, get out some paper, and try to write what it said without looking back at it.


Some sample paraphrases

Some Sample Paraphrases

Medical procedures took more time and were less proficient if the doctor had not had enough sleep.

OR: Doctors could not work as effectively if they attempted surgeries after insufficient sleep.


Adding the paraphrase

Adding the Paraphrase

. . .For example, journalist Susan Okie, staff writer for The Washington Post, reporting on the results of a British study, emphasized that doctors could not work as effectively if they attempted surgeries after insufficient sleep (B8), confirming what many advocates for eliminating “double shifts” for physicians have warned us about: people functioning on limited sleep perform less well than they would after adequate sleep.


Using a summary

Using a Summary

As with the paraphrase, the first step is to write an acceptable summary. Again, as with the paraphrase, you want to write using your own word choice and your own sentence structure. The chief difference is that a summary will be quite short. You may, for example, want to offer a short summary of an entire chapter or article.


Sample summaries

A recent experiment in England indicates that overly-fatigued physicians are likely to subject patients to ineffective and dangerous medical treatment.

Results of a recent British medical study acknowledge that, much of the time, tired doctors simply can’t provide safe medical treatment to patients.

Sample Summaries


Incorporating the summary

Incorporating the Summary

. . . For example, according to journalist Susan Okie, staff writer for The Washington Post, the results of a recent British medical study acknowledge that, much of the time, tired doctors simply can’t provide safe medical treatment to patients (B8), confirming what many advocates for eliminating “double shifts” . . .


Final words

Final Words

Always consult a good grammar handbook for assistance with punctuation for direct quotations and for suggestions about writing successful paraphrases and summaries.


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