W.E.B. Du Bois. W.E.B. Du Bois (1868 – 1963). Raised by single mother who worked as a domestic, was 1 st black graduate of his Massachusetts high school Attended Fisk University, was 1 st African American PhD from Harvard Studied at University of Berlin, lived in Europe for 2 years
“The problem of the 20th century is the problem of the color line—the relation of the darker to the lighter races of men in Asia and Africa, in America and the islands of the sea.”
[See Fig. 7.2, p. 337.]
(symbolic status hierarchy)
(racialized social institutions)
Caterers, clerks, teachers, professional men, small merchants, etc.
“The practical results of the attitude of most of the inhabitants of Philadelphia toward persons of Negro descent” are demonstrated in these everyday arenas: