Chapter 4 phonology
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Chapter 4: Phonology…. …not the study of telephones! NOTES: The slides/lecture/discussion for this chapter deviate from the order of the book… You WILL need to read, you decide to read early, late or both… About exercising : it keeps you healthy: physically & mentally… .

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Chapter 4: Phonology…

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Chapter 4 phonology

Chapter 4: Phonology…

…not the study of telephones!

NOTES:

The slides/lecture/discussion for this chapter deviate from the order of the book… You WILL need to read, you decide to read early, late or both…

About exercising: it keeps you healthy: physically & mentally…


Kinds of sound change

Kinds of Sound Change

  • Assimilation(become more alike)

    • Nasalization

    • Voicing

    • Flapping

  • Dissimilation (become less alike)

    • Metathesis (shift sounds around)

    • Epenthesis // Intrusion (add a sound)

  • Other

    • Elision // Deletion (take a sound away)

    • Vowel Reduction (shorten or ‘schwa’ a sound)


Kinds of sound change1

Kinds of Sound Change


Sound safari

Sound Safari

  • Find example words for one subcategory of each type of sound change in the previous slide

  • Hand me the examples highlighting

    • IPA for “careful” vs. “fast-casual” speech

    • Explanation of the change in terms of natural classes

    • Answer: Is the created sound always allophonic, or sometimes phonemic


Phonemes

Phonemes

  • Formal Definition:Sounds that are heard distinctively by native speakers of a language

  • Dave’s Translation: Sound that make meaningful differences in a language


On being distinctive

On Being Distinctive

  • AKA Contrastive … AKA Phonemic

  • Minimal pairs

  • You tell me:

    • Standard spelling for each of the above…

    • More minimal pairs…


What s this

What’s This?


Allophones

Allophones

  • Formal Definition:Sounds that are NOT heard distinctively by native speakers of a language

  • Dave’s Translation: Sounds that DO NOT make meaningful differences in a language


Other language

Other Language:

Phonemic or allophonic?


Aspiration

Aspiration

  • Hold a paper in front of your mouth

    • Say “pot” and “poke”

    • Then “spot” and “spoke”

    • Does the paper move differently?


Phonemes allophones

Phonemes & Allophones

  • Minimal Pairs  phonemic distinction

  • - Allophones (in English)

    • (sit, sing)

    • Phonetically distinct, phonologically same

    • Complementary distribution


  • To formalize

    To Formalize

    • Phoneme –Allophone Illustration

    Underlying form

    Surface form


    Phonological rule

    Phonological Rule


    In simpler words

    In Simpler Words

    • A  B / X __ Y

    A becomesB when it comes between X and Y

    We typically use features for A, B, X and Y… For shorthand we may sometimes use segments instead…


    Chapter 4 phonology

    Find a sound that either

    Changes from slow to fast speech

    Changes when you add a morpheme

    Fill in the tree

    Write the rule

    / /  [ ] / ___ ___

    Now You Try It…


    Phonological units

    Phonological Units

    • Word unit

    • Syllableu nit

    • Segmentu n I t(IPA symbol)

    • Feature+ vowel+ nasal(Chart column/row)+ high+ stop … ………


    Phonological units1

    Phonological Units

    • Word unit

    • Syllableu nit

    • Segment [u n I t ](IPA symbol)

    • Feature+ vowel+ nasal(Chart column/row)+ high+ stop … ………


    Features

    Features

    • The atoms of phonology

    • Building blocks of sound

    • Key to understanding (most) variation

    • Binary distinction (+/-)

      • You’ve either got it, or you don’t…


    Phonological principles

    Phonological Principles

    • Ideal vs. Realization

    • Largely subconscious

    • Universals exist

    • Rule governed

      • Rules can be formalized

      • Rules can be generalized

      • Rules must be ordered…


    Any questions

    Any Questions…

    …before we move on?


    Natural classes

    Natural Classes

    • Sounds that share feature(s) and behave similarly in phonology

      • Consonants

        • Stop -Stop

        • Voice -Voice

      • Vowels

        • High -High

        • Back - Back


    Get some exercise

    Get Some Exercise


    Natural classes answers

    Natural Classes: Answers

    • Circle the ‘Natural Classes’

      p tkbdg

      f T s S v DzZ

      tS

      dZ

      Find These: Stops, Alveolars, Affricates, & Velars


    Natural classes answers1

    Natural Classes: Answers

    • Circle the ‘Natural Classes’

      p tkbdg

      f T s S v DzZ

      tS

      dZ

      Stops, Alveolars,Affricates, & Velars

    Challenge: Find the rest… (there are at least 12)


    Any questions1

    Any Questions…

    …before we move on?


    Syllable

    Syllable

    • Book’s Definition:

      A unit of linguistic structure that consists of a syllabic element and any segments that are associated with it

    • Dave’s Interpretation:

      A potentially independent group of sounds that sticks closely together


    Syllabic recipe

    Syllabic Recipe


    Sequence constraints

    Sequence Constraints

    (PhonotacticConstraints)

    • Formal Definition: The set of constraints on how sequences of segments pattern

    • Dave’s Interpretation: Rules on which sounds can be next to each other (≈ in a syllable)


    Sequence constraints1

    Sequence Constraints

    • Different languages = Different rules

      • English

        • V, VC, CV, CVC, CCV, etc…

      • Spanish

        • Onset = [sk], [st], [sp]

      • Japanese

        • “C” as coda, except [n]

    • Explain Spanish or Japanese constraints in terms of natural classes…


    Don t get stressed out

    Don’t Get Stressed Out…

    • Primary and Secondary Stress

      • Separate Words = Separate Stress

        • Whíte hóuse

      • Single Concept = Related Stress

        • Whíte Hòuse

      • Multi-syllable words

        • Stress varies

        • http://oak.ucc.nau.edu/tn24/wordstress/wstresstext.html


    Syllablabic interventions

    Syllablabic Interventions…

    Find rules governingvowel length

    Why don’t “redo” and “debunk” follow the rule?


    Sentence level stress

    Sentence Level Stress

    • Stress Content Words

      • N, V, Adj, Adv

    • Not function words

      • Det, Aux Vs, Conj’s, Pronouns, Prepositions


    Any questions2

    Any Questions…

    …before we move on?


    Try it the plural suffix

    Try It: The Plural Suffix

    • Orthography: -s or -es

    • Phonetic:

    • Sort the following phonetically:

      • tack, tag, torch, cough, cup, dish, dress, grave, graph, hat, house, hunch, judge, lad, lash, lathe, maze, room, tax, thing

    • Why? (i.e. What are the rules?)


    3 rules

    3 Rules

    • Add plural suffix: [s]

      • Ø  s / # ___

    • Change [s] to [z]Voicing

      • s  z / C ___ #+ voice

    • Change [s] to [Ez]Epenthesis

      • s Ez / C ___ #+ Affricate/Fricative+ Alveolar/Alveopalatal


    Plural rules

    Plural Rules:

    What went wrong? How can we fix it?


    Plural rules order matters

    Plural Rules: Order Matters


    Any questions3

    Any Questions…

    …before we move on?

    …only two slides left…


    Cross linguistic variation

    Cross-linguistic Variation


    For tomorrow

    For “Tomorrow”

    • Exercises

      • Be aware of these:

        • 4-1,4,8,15

      • Spend time on these

        • 4-17,18,19,20,21,22


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