Big Idea 7

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Big Idea 7

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1. Big Idea #7 The Earth is a complex system of interacting rock, water, air, and life!

2. Weathering and Soils

3. Important distinction Weathering Erosion Weathering; is created by the destructive processes that brake down rocks, minerals, and sediment from exposure to atmospheric agents. (In a resting state) Erosion, is the movement or transportation of weathering products.Weathering; is created by the destructive processes that brake down rocks, minerals, and sediment from exposure to atmospheric agents. (In a resting state) Erosion, is the movement or transportation of weathering products.

4. Mechanical weathering

5. Frost action

6. An example

7. Thermal expansion Solar radiation Forest fires

8. Secondary crystal growth Salt growth

9. Gravity

10. Unloading The removal mass (A release of pressure)

12. Chemical weathering Water The products of chemical weathering are Dissolved minerals Clay Formation of altered or new minerals

13. Major Types of Chemical Weathering Solution Oxidation and Hydration Hydrolysis

14. Solution Weathering

15. Dissolution

17. Oxidation and Hydration Produces iron-oxide minerals such as Hematite and Limonite. Preexisting minerals with a high concentration of iron (Fe) such as Magnetite and pyrite are most susceptible to oxidation. Products of oxidation will be colors of red to brown, think of a car rusting.Produces iron-oxide minerals such as Hematite and Limonite. Preexisting minerals with a high concentration of iron (Fe) such as Magnetite and pyrite are most susceptible to oxidation. Products of oxidation will be colors of red to brown, think of a car rusting.

18. Hydrolysis The most important chemical weathering reaction (soil) 2KAlSi3O8 + 2H2CO3 + 9H2O ? Al2Si2O5 (OH4) + 4H4SiO4 + 2K +2HCO3 Orthoclase + carbonic acid + water ? Kaolinite + silicic acid + potassium + bicarbonate 2KAlSi3O8 + 2H2CO3 + 9H2O ? Al2Si2O5 (OH4) + 4H4SiO4 + 2K +2HCO3 Significance: The Weathering of Silicate minerals and quartz-rich rocks (granite); and The production/alteration of clay 2KAlSi3O8 + 2H2CO3 + 9H2O ? Al2Si2O5 (OH4) + 4H4SiO4 + 2K +2HCO3 Significance: The Weathering of Silicate minerals and quartz-rich rocks (granite); and The production/alteration of clay

19. Orthoclase to Kaolinite (Clay)

20. Biologic weathering Plants Animals Humans Root structure (penetratation) Root structures and lichen may produce a weak acid that helps to chemically brake down rockRoot structure (penetratation) Root structures and lichen may produce a weak acid that helps to chemically brake down rock

22. Weathering Rates GOLDICH WEATHERING SERIES

23. Olivine Quartz

25. A Soil is; a natural occurring body weathered horizons of minerals organic matter components; variable in thickness Differ from the parent material (source)

26. An important concept Soil is NOT a geologic deposit

27. Soil

28. Horizons Master horizons: O, A, E, B, C, and R Horizons are classified due to specific weathering propertiesHorizons are classified due to specific weathering properties

31. Soil forming factors Hans Jenny (1941) Cl, o, r, p, t cl, climate o, biology r, topography p, parent material t, time

32. The two most important factors

33. Texture Size of the individual peds Sand, Silt, Clay

35. Soil classification (Naming) Pedologists Why Classify anything? Soils and Specific properties Development of a common language Soil types and usage patterns Soils and Specific properties Development of a common language Soil types and usage patterns

36. Soil Taxonomy Order 12 Suborder 63 Great Group 319 Sub Group 2, 484 Family 8, 000 Series 19, 000

38. The official Iowa state soil The Tama series Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Argiudolls

39. Order: Mollisol Temperate Grasslands Thick A-horizon

41. Soil Problems & Consequences Erosion Construction/Urbanization

42. Soil Erosion The role of vegetation!!! Stream development Wind

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