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Social Organization. Marriage, Family, Kinship. Marriage rules of sexual access form of exchange – establishes alliances accords a child full birth-status rights common to normal members of his society or social stratum.

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marriage family kinship
Marriage, Family, Kinship
  • Marriage
    • rules of sexual access
    • form of exchange – establishes alliances
    • accords a child full birth-status rights common to normal members of his society or social stratum.
  • family -- smallest, organized unit of kin and non-kin who interact daily, providing for the domestic needs of children and ensuring their survival
  • descent group -- who one is related to beyond marriage
  • Alliance -- relations between descent groups
forms of marriage
Forms of Marriage
  • Monogamy = marriage between two partners
  • Polygamy = plural marriage = an individual has more than one spouse
    • Polygyny = one man many wives
    • Polyandry = one woman many husbands
  • No marriage
  • Serial monogamy = preferred practice in the West?
other forms of marriage
Other Forms of Marriage
  • Same Sex Marriages
    • A Nuer woman who is unable to have children is sometimes married as a "husband" to another woman who then is impregnated by a secret boyfriend. 
    • The barren woman becomes the socially recognized father and thereby adds members to her father\'s patrilineal kin group
other forms of marriage ghost marriage
Other Forms of marriage: Ghost Marriage
  • A Nuer man may marry a woman as a stand-in for his deceased brother
    • the children that are born of this union will be considered descendents of the dead man -- the "ghost" is the socially recognized father
    • allows the continuation of the family line and succession to an important social position
  • A Nuer woman of wealth may marry a deceased man to keep her wealth and power
    • there will be no living husband, though she may subsequently have children
    • She is, in effect, a widow who takes care of her husband\'s wealth and children until they are mature
forms of marriage6
Forms of Marriage
  • Levirate & sororate
    • Levirate = a widow marries dead husband’s brother
    • Sororate = a widower marries dead wife’s sister
  • Keeps inheritance within the same group
levi strauss on marriage as exchange
Levi-Strauss on Marriage as Exchange
  • Levi-Strauss: "It\'s not the man that marries the maid, but field marries field, vineyard marries vineyard, cattle marries cattle”
  • a set of rights the couple & their families obtain over one another, including rights to the couple\'s children
marriage and wealth exchange
Marriage and wealth exchange
  • Bridewealth
    • payment to wife and/or wife’s family
    • pays for loss of daughter
  • Dowry
    • payment to husband and/or husband family
    • correlated to low women gender status
    • pays for adding women to descent group
marriage exchanges
  • marriage means alliances
  • people don\'t just take a spouse they assume obligations to a group of in-laws
  • often more a relationship between groups than one between individuals-marriage involves
are people buying their wives or how is a wife like a t v
are people buying their wives? Or how is a wife like a T.V.?
  • the price is negotiated & rights are not given to the husband until the deal is done
    • if the woman proves barren or troublesome the goods are often refunded
    • women have voice in the transactions
    • women also has rights of her own in the marriage relationship (commodities don\'t)
  • the woman & her kinfolk can also end the marriage if husband does not meet obligations
buying selling of commodities is a one time event
buying & selling of commodities is a one time event
  • bridewealth establishes an enduring bundle of reciprocal rights & obligations between relatives of the couple that will last as long as the marriage lasts
levi strauss and women as objects of exchange
Levi-Strauss and women as objects of exchange
  • marriage systems - a form of exchange - "that as soon as I am forbidden a woman, she thereby becomes available to another man, and somewhere else a man renounces a woman who thereby becomes available to me." (Levi-Strauss:51)
    • wife givers & wife takers
  • nevertheless, as exchange marriage implies reciprocity = obligations assumed in creation & maintenance of alliances
marriage and the family
Marriage and the Family
  • Variation in forms of marriage related to variations in forms of family
  • Nuclear family = parents and children
  • Extended family = 3 or more generations
  • Joint family or collateral household = siblings, their spouses and children
  • Forms of family change over time, over life cycle
forms of family subsistence
Forms of Family & Subsistence
  • Forager band = group of nuclear families
  • Industrial economy = also nuclear family
    • Neither foragers nor industrial societies tied to the land
    • Emphasis on mobility, small-size, self-sufficiency
  • Cultivators and Horticulturalists = extended, joint, collateral households
    • Extended family associated with sedentary cultivation, herding & private property
    • Keeps property in family
    • Provides needed labor
family in canada europe us
Family in Canada, Europe, US
  • A unit bounded biologically & legally
  • Associated with property
  • Economic self sufficiency
  • Associated with emotional life
  • Associated with a space inside a home
    • Emerges in complex state-governed societies
  • Keep neighbors out compared to others that add children & neighbors as kin
the modern euro north american family
The Modern Euro-North American Family
  • Family = nurturance, biofunction, love & affection, cooperation, enduring relationships, unconditional
  • Market = sale of labour, negotiate contractual relations of business, competitive, temporary, contingent relations, law & legal sanctions
  • family as last refuge against the state (domestic issues & police)
  • family and litigation today - family becoming contract
post marital residence patterns
Post-Marital Residence Patterns
  • Patrilocal
  • Matrilocal
  • Bi-local
  • Neolocal
  • Avunculocal – living with mother’s brother or father’s sister
  • Virilocal – living with husband’s relatives (patrilineal descent)
  • Uxorilocal – living with wife’s relatives (matrilineal descent)
post marital residence patterns18
Post-Marital Residence Patterns
  • 70% of all societies patrilocal
  • Matrifocal households – women headed households with no permanently resident husband-father
  • Patrifocal – 3 men and a baby?
  • Post-marital residence patterns change during life cycle of marriage, over time
  • Lineal – line of descent
  • Local – place of residence
  • Lateral – of or relating to the side
  • Archy – government
kin types
  • Consanguineals
  • Affinals
  • fictive kin
  • Lineals
  • Collaterals
descent terms
  • Bilateral
  • Unilineal
  • Matrilineal
  • Patrilineal
  • Cognatic
kinship descent
Kinship & Descent
  • For some societies kinship & descent lines are the main way people organize themselves
  • Kinship societies
    • The relationships established within the biological group and outside the biological group are coded in kin terms
kinship patterns
Kinship Patterns
  • Relations of descent (endogamy)
    • Consanguineal relationships (sanguine = red)
      • Relations of blood
  • Relations of alliance (exogamy)
    • Affinal relationships (affinity)
    • Through marriage (in-laws)
kinship and descent
kinship and descent
  • kinship as an idiom
    • a way of expressing social relations and the exchanges, rights, and obligations implied
  • selective
    • each system emphasizes different relations
  • kinship principles define social groups
    • produces forms of social stratification
  • locate people within those groups
  • position people and groups in relation to one another both in space and time
kin terms
kin terms
  • sometimes mark specific relationships, sometimes lump together several genealogical relations
  • lineal relatives/consanguines - ancestor, descendent on direct line of descent to or from ego
  • collateral kin - all other biological kin, siblings, nieces, nephews, aunts, uncles
  • affines - relatives by marriage
unilineal descent unilateral
  • descent group membership figured exclusively through female or male side
  • matrilineal descent
  • patrilineal descent
matrilineal and patrilineal kin
Matrilineal and Patrilineal Kin
  • Patrilineal , or agnatic, relatives are identified by tracing descent exclusively through males from a founding male ancestor.
  • Matrilineal , or uterine, relatives are identified by tracing descent exclusively through females from a founding female ancestor.
cross relatives
cross relatives
  • kin on each side, who are neither patrilineal or matrilineal
  • cross cousins are of particular importance, especially for some marriage systems
  • Cross cousins can be identified as the children of opposite sexed siblings (of a brother and sister) and parallel cousins as the children of same sexed siblings (of two brothers or two sisters).
bilateral descent
Bilateral Descent
  • Also called cognatic descent
  • Canada, US, Europe
  • ego sees his or her relatives on both sides as being of equal closeness & relevance
  • the degree of closeness is based on generational distance separating the individuals (our system)
strengths of bilateral system
Strengths of Bilateral System
  • Overlapping membership
  • Widely extended, can form broad networks
  • Flexible
  • Useful for groups that do not live in same place
  • Useful when valued resources are limited
extensions of kin groups
Extensions of kin groups
  • lineage
  • matrilineage
  • patrilineage
  • segmentary lineage
  • clan
  • phratry
  • moiety
  • kindred
structures of descent
Structures of Descent
  • lineages (patri & matri) - common ancestor
  • clan – several lineages common ancestor, usually large groups that are associated with mythical ancestors
  • phratry - unilineal descent group composed of a number of supposedly related clans
  • moieties - means half, when an entire society is divided into 2 unilineal descent groups
  • many societies have 2 or more types of descent groups in various combinations
  • some have lineages & clans, others may have clans & phrateries but no lineages
  • a corporate descent group whose members trace their genealogical links to a common ancestor
  • corporate = shares resources in common
    • own property
    • organize labour
    • assign status
    • regulate relations with other groups
  • endures beyond individual members
clan or sib
Clan (or sib)
  • a non-corporate descent group whose members claim descent from a common ancestor without knowing the genealogical inks to that ancestor
  • often produced through fission of lineage into newer, smaller lineage
characteristics of the clan
characteristics of the clan
  • greater genealogical depth than lineage
  • lacks residential unity (in contrast to lineage)
  • a ceremonial unit that meets on special occasions
  • handle important integrative functions
  • may regulate marriage outside clan
clans are often dependent on symbols as integrative feature
clans are often dependent on symbols as integrative feature
  • totem: a symbol of a clan’s mythical origin that reinforces clan member’s common descent
  • totem from Ojibwa ototeman; he is a relative of mine
phratries and moieties
Phratries and Moieties
  • less common forms of descent groups
  • phratry: a unilineal descent group composed of at least two clans that supposedly share a common ancestry, whether they do or not
  • if a society is broken into only two large groups (clan or phratry), each group is referred to as a MOIETY
  • moieties, phratries, clans and lineages
    • from most inclusive to the least inclusive
    • all typically associated with exogamy
bilateral kindred
Bilateral Kindred
  • a person\'s bilateral set of relatives who may be called upon for some purpose
  • no two persons belong exactly to the same kin group
  • ego centered with kindred of close relatives spreading out on both your mother\'s and father\'s sides
  • connected only because of you