Bioenergetics
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Bioenergetics. I. Introduction. A. Definition. B. History. 1. Count Rumford ( 1798 ) work into heat studies , cannon boring. 2. Sadi Carnot ( 1824 ) work depends on the temperature , cyclic engine. 3. James Joule ( 1842 ) established equivalence of work and heat ( Joule ).

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Bioenergetics

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Bioenergetics

I. Introduction

A. Definition

B. History


1.Count Rumford(1798) work into heat studies, cannon boring

2.Sadi Carnot(1824) work depends on the temperature, cyclic engine

3.James Joule(1842) established equivalence of work and heat (Joule)

4.Rudolph Classius(1850) states the firsttwo laws of thermodynamics

5.J. Gibbs (1878) proposed free energy or system energy to perform work when To and pressure are uniform throughout a system called Free Energy


6.Ludwig Boltzman late 19th century, proposed energy existed as packets based on particles he called atoms, started fields of thermodynamics and kinetics. Committed suicide in 1906 because no one believed him.

7.Albert Einstein late 1905 atoms held the energy (basis for almost all energy equations)

8.Ernest Rutherford (1910) and Neils Bohr (1912) would design the shape and structure of an atom.


C. Energy Forms


1. Potential Energy = StoredEnergy

Figure 8.2


2. KineticEnergy = MotionEnergy

Figure 8.2


D. Energy Laws


1. Law ofConservation, Constancy, or Quantityof Energy

Figure 8.3


2. Law ofTransformation, Order, or Qualityof Energy

Figure 8.3


The basis for life on earth is bound to this diagram.

Figure 9.2


E. Energy Reactions


1. Predicting reaction spontaneity = Free Energy  (ΔG)

ΔG = free energy

ΔH = enthalpy

ΔG = ΔH - TΔS

ΔS = entropy

T =absolute temperature


Figure 8.5


2. Exergonic reactions = release of free energy

3. Endergonic reactions = absorbs free energy

Figure 8.6


Figure 8.7


F. ATP and Energy Coupling


1. Structure of ATP

Figure 8.8


Cycling of ATP

Figure 8.9


2. ATP Coupled Reactions

Figure 8.10


Figure 8.11


II. Enzymes

A. Definition

B. History


1.Pasteur vs. Leibig (1890’s) Fermentationneeds intact cells or not

2.Buchner late 1890’s Yeast yield EtOH and CO2 from catalyst in cells (yeast) coined the term “enzyme”

3.Sumner (1926) isolated crystalline protein called urease


C. Function


1. Overview

Figure 8.13


2. How?

Figure 8.14


Figure 8.15


2. How?

Figure 8.17


3. Kinetics


3. Kinetics

Line Weaver-Burk plot


Line Weaver-Burk plot


4. Environmental Effects (Temperature)

Figure 8.18


4. Environmental Effects (Inhibitors)

Figure 8.19


5. Regulation (Allosteric)

Figure 8.20


5. Regulation (Feedback Inhibition)

Figure 8.21


Learning can be suchsweet sorrow.


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