Working with Operating System Chapter : 2. Operating System.
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Operating system is a system software which acts as an interface between user and computer. It has two parts : Kernel and Shell. Kernel is responsible for interacting with hardware and the shell is responsible for interacting with the user.
The Shell acts as the command interpreter which takes the commands from the user, interprets them & takes action accordingly.
(i) Packages: This type of software is developed keeping in mind the general requirements for carrying out a specific task. Many users can use it simultaneously as it fulfills the general requirements. Example : Electronic Spreadsheet, DBMS (Database Management system, Word Processing Package etc.
Word Processing Package is a package that processes textual matter and creates organized and flawless documents.
An Electronic Spreadsheet is a program that accepts data in a tabular form (in rows and columns) and allows the users to manipulate/ calculate/ analyze data in the desired manner.
A Database Management System (DBMS) is a package that can handle and manage bulk of stored data.
Desktop Publishing software : The software that handles page layout by combining the functions of a traditional typesetter and a layout artist, is known as DTP.
Graphics Software : The application software that manipulates images is known as Graphics software and the software that incorporates images, text, sound, computer animation, and video sequences is known as multimedia software.
Presentation graphics software : The application software that can create professional looking visual aids is called Presentation Graphics Software.
1) Processor Management : Processor management means managing the process or processor i.e. the CPU so this function is also termed as CPU scheduling. The main focus is on increasing the throughput i.e. the amount of work accomplished in a given time interval ( e.g. 15 jobs per hour).
Throughput = No. of jobs completed / Total time taken to complete the jobs
In Preemptive scheduling a scheduling decision can be made even while the job is executing. Therefore, a preemptive scheduling may force a job in execution to release the processor, so that priority job can be executed first to improve throughput. The techniques used in preemptive scheduling are :
Memory plays a central role in computer system as both CPU and I/O system interact with memory. Every program must be assigned some memory area and loaded into memory in order to be executed. Various approaches for memory management are given as under :
ASCII(American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used alphanumeric code in most microcomputers and minicomputers and in many mainframes. The ASCII code is a 7-bit code, and so it has 27 = 128 possible code groups to represent different characters.
ISCII (Indian Standard Code for Information Interchange) is an 8-bit code capable of coding 256 characters. ISCII code retains all ASCII characters and offers coding for Indian scripts also. Thus it is also called Indian Scripts Code for Information Interchange.
Unicode provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language. The Unicode Standard has been adopted by such industry leaders as Microsoft, Oracle, IBM etc. Unicode version 3.0 represented 49,194 characters, whereas Unicode version 3.1 has added many more characters, making the character count to 94,140.