Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government
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Unit 3: Structure and Functions of the Federal Government. Three branches compose the basic structure of the federal government. Public policy is created through the making of laws, the execution of the laws and the adjudication of disputes under the laws. . Content Statements.

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Unit 3: Structure and Functions of the Federal Government

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Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

Unit 3: Structure and Functions of the Federal Government

Three branches compose the basic structure of the federal government. Public policy is created through the making of laws, the execution of the laws and the adjudication of disputes under the laws.


Content statements

Content Statements

Law and public policy are created and implemented by three branches of government; each functions with its own set of powers and responsibilities.

The political process creates a dynamic interaction among the three branches of government in addressing current issues.


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

Congressional Leadership

U.S. Senate

U.S. House of Representatives


Legislative branch

Legislative Branch

Section 4: Organization of Congress


Terms and sessions

Terms and Sessions

  • Every 2 years, all House of Reps and 1/3 of Senators

  • New term begins Jan. 3

  • Each Congress is numbered

    • 1st was 1789-1790

    • 112th was 2011-2012

  • Each term divided into two 1-year sessions

  • Quorum (majority) must be present to conduct business


Term limits none for congress

Term Limits—none for Congress

  • For—get new people in

  • Against—want consistency

  • Incumbents—current officeholders, they usually win re-election


Congressional leaders

Congressional Leaders

  • *Majority party—holds most seats

  • *Minority party—holds fewer seats


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

U.S. Senate

U.S. House of Representatives

U.S. Vice President

Speaker

President Pro Tempore

Majority Leader

Minority Leader

Majority Leader

Minority Leader

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Rank-and-File Representatives

Rank-and-File Senators


Congressional leadership

Congressional Leadership

How do congressional leaders maintain order and facilitate the legislative process?


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

U.S. Senate

U.S. House of Representatives

U.S. Vice President

Joe Biden

Speaker

President Pro Tempore

Majority Leader

Minority Leader

Majority Leader

Minority Leader

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Rank-and-File Representatives

Rank-and-File Senators


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

President of the SenateJoe Biden - U.S. Vice President (D)

  • Does not debate bills or address the Senate

  • Votes only if there is a tie

  • Presides over official electoral college vote

  • Presides over Federal impeachment cases (except President… Chief Justice presides in these cases)


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

U.S. Senate

U.S. House of Representatives

U.S. Vice President

Joe Biden (D)

Speaker

President Pro Tempore

Daniel Inouye (D)

Majority Leader

Minority Leader

Majority Leader

Minority Leader

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Rank-and-File Representatives

Rank-and-File Senators


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

President Pro TemporeDaniel Inouye (D)


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

U.S. Senate

U.S. House of Representatives

U.S. Vice President

Joe Biden (D)

Speaker

President Pro Tempore

Daniel Inouye (D)

Majority Leader

Minority Leader

Majority Leader

Harry Reid – (D)

Minority Leader

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Rank-and-File Representatives

Rank-and-File Senators


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

Senate Majority LeaderHarry Reid (D)

  • Most Senior Senate Official

  • Day-to-Day manager of business in Senate

  • Primary spokesperson for his party


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

U.S. Senate

U.S. House of Representatives

U.S. Vice President

Joe Biden (D)

Speaker

President Pro Tempore

Daniel Inouye (D)

Majority Leader

Minority Leader

Majority Leader

Harry Reid – (D)

Minority Leader

Mitch McConnell – (R)

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Rank-and-File Representatives

Rank-and-File Senators


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

Senate Minority LeaderMitch McConnell (R)

  • Most Senior Official For Minority Party

  • Set party Agenda and Strategy


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

U.S. Senate

U.S. House of Representatives

U.S. Vice President

Joe Biden (D)

Speaker

President Pro Tempore

Daniel Inouye (D)

Majority Leader

Minority Leader

Majority Leader

Harry Reid – (D)

Minority Leader

Mitch McConnell – (R)

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Majority Whip

Dick Durbin – (D)

Minority Whip

Rank-and-File Representatives

Rank-and-File Senators


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

Senate Majority WhipRichard Durbin (D)

  • Persuade Members to vote on party lines

  • Ensure bills have enough support to pass

  • “whip up support” for party


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

U.S. Senate

U.S. House of Representatives

U.S. Vice President

Joe Biden (D)

Speaker

President Pro Tempore

Daniel Inouye (D)

Majority Leader

Minority Leader

Majority Leader

Harry Reid – (D)

Minority Leader

Mitch McConnell – (R)

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Majority Whip

Dick Durbin – (D)

Minority Whip

Jon Kyl – (R)

Rank-and-File Representatives

Rank-and-File Senators


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

Senate Minority WhipJon Kyl (R)

  • Persuade Members to vote on party lines

  • Ensure bills have enough support to pass

  • “whip up support” for party


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

U.S. Senate

U.S. House of Representatives

U.S. Vice President

Joe Biden (D)

Speaker

John Boehner (R)

President Pro Tempore

Daniel Inouye (D)

Majority Leader

Minority Leader

Majority Leader

Harry Reid – (D)

Minority Leader

Mitch McConnell – (R)

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Majority Whip

Dick Durbin – (D)

Minority Whip

Jon Kyl – (R)

Rank-and-File Representatives

Rank-and-File Senators


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

Speaker of the HouseJohn Boehner (R)

  • Presides over the House of Representatives

  • Sets the agenda for legislation

  • Primary Spokesperson for his or her party

  • Most Senior official in House of Representatives


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

U.S. Senate

U.S. House of Representatives

U.S. Vice President

Joe Biden (D)

Speaker

John Boehner (R)

President Pro Tempore

Daniel Inouye (D)

Minority Leader

Majority Leader

Eric Cantor (R)

Majority Leader

Harry Reid – (D)

Minority Leader

Mitch McConnell – (R)

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Majority Whip

Dick Durbin – (D)

Minority Whip

Jon Kyl – (R)

Rank-and-File Representatives

Rank-and-File Senators


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

House Majority LeaderEric Cantor- (R)

  • Leader of the Majority Party

  • Second most senior official in House of Reps.

  • Recently day-to-day manager of business on house floor


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

U.S. Senate

U.S. House of Representatives

U.S. Vice President

Joe Biden (D)

Speaker

John Boehner (R)

President Pro Tempore

Daniel Inouye (D)

Majority Leader

Eric Cantor (R)

Minority Leader

Nancy Pelosi (D)

Majority Leader

Harry Reid – (D)

Minority Leader

Mitch McConnell – (R)

Majority Whip

Minority Whip

Majority Whip

Dick Durbin – (D)

Minority Whip

Jon Kyl – (R)

Rank-and-File Representatives

Rank-and-File Senators


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

House Minority LeaderNancy Pelosi (D)

  • Most senior official of minority party

  • Leader of Minority Party

  • Set party agenda, message, and strategy


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

U.S. Senate

U.S. House of Representatives

U.S. Vice President

Joe Biden (D)

Speaker

John Boehner (R)

President Pro Tempore

Daniel Inouye (D)

Majority Leader

Eric Cantor (R)

Minority Leader

Nancy Pelosi (D)

Majority Leader

Harry Reid – (D)

Minority Leader

Mitch McConnell – (R)

Majority Whip

Kevin McCarthy (R)

Minority Whip

Majority Whip

Dick Durbin – (D)

Minority Whip

Jon Kyl – (R)

Rank-and-File Representatives

Rank-and-File Senators


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

House Majority WhipKevin McCarthy (R)

  • Persuade Members to vote on party lines

  • Ensure bills have enough support to pass

  • “whip up support” for party


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

U.S. Senate

U.S. House of Representatives

U.S. Vice President

Joe Biden (D)

Speaker

John Boehner (R)

President Pro Tempore

Daniel Inouye (D)

Majority Leader

Eric Cantor (R)

Minority Leader

Nancy Pelosi (D)

Majority Leader

Harry Reid – (D)

Minority Leader

Mitch McConnell – (R)

Majority Whip

Kevin McCarthy (R)

Minority Whip

Steny Hoyer (D)

Majority Whip

Dick Durbin – (D)

Minority Whip

Jon Kyl – (R)

Rank-and-File Representatives

Rank-and-File Senators


Unit 3 structure and functions of the federal government

House Minority WhipSteny Hoyer (D)

  • Persuade Members to vote on party lines

  • Ensure bills have enough support to pass

  • “whip up support” for party


The legislative branch

The Legislative Branch

Section 5: The Committee System


Committee system questions

Committee System Questions

What is the purpose of the committees?

What is a standing committee? A subcommittee? A select committee? A joint committee? A conference committee?

Members of Congress who have served the longest often head key committees and have an important voice in passing legislation. Do you think this seniority system helps Congress to operate more effectively? EXPLAIN!


The committee system

The Committee System

“Congress in the Committee is Congress at work”

-Woodrow Wilson


Purpose of committees

Purpose of Committees

  • Committees ease Congressional workload by dividing work among small groups.


Purpose of committees1

Purpose of Committees

  • Committees allow members to discuss and select the most important bills Congress will consider.


Kinds of committees

Kinds of Committees

  • Standing committees deal with certain issues continuing from one Congress to the next.

    • Judiciary Committee


Kinds of committees1

Kinds of Committees

  • Subcommittees handle special subcategories of standing committees’ work, and also continue from one Congress to the next.

    • Social Security


Kinds of committees2

Kinds of Committees

  • Select committees are special committees created in both houses of Congress for one term to study a specific topic.

    • 9/11 Commission


Kinds of committees3

Kinds of Committees

  • Joint Committees – members from both Houses.

    • Taxation

  • Conference Committees – temporary committees set up to resolve differences in the House and Senate version of a bill.


Choosing members

Choosing Members

  • Assigning members to various committees is a key decision in the organization of Congress.


Choosing members1

Choosing Members

  • Membership on certain committees…

  • Helps members build reputations and increase their chances for reelection.

  • Gives members a chance to influence important national legislation.

  • Enables members to influence other members since those committees deal with issues that are important to all members.


Choosing members2

Choosing Members

  • In both houses, parties assign members to the standing committees

  • Party leaders and chairpersons of the standing committees are the most important members of Congress.


Choosing members3

Choosing Members

  • Standing committee chairpersons make key decisions about the work of their committees, though their power has decreased.


Discussion question

Discussion Question

  • Members of Congress who have served the longest often head key committees and have an important voice in passing legislation. Do you think this seniority system helps Congress to operate more effectively? EXPLAIN!


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