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Tools and Machines. Prehistory Takeover throughout the 18 th Century 19 th Century Julie Johnson. Tool vs. Machine. Tool A device that provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task. (Wikipedia) 5 basic tools: lever, wedge, screw, pulley, and inclined plane.

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Tools and machines

Tools and Machines


Takeover throughout the 18th Century

19th Century

Julie Johnson

Tool vs machine
Tool vs. Machine


  • A device that provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task. (Wikipedia)

  • 5 basic tools: lever, wedge, screw, pulley, and inclined plane

Tool vs machine1
Tool vs. Machine


  • A machine is any mechanical or organic device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. (energy in for work out) (Wikipedia)

  • Components of a Machine: Combination of the 5 basic tools

Prehistory myth
Prehistory – Myth

  • Athena

    • Workshop on Mt. Olympus

    • Original inventor of all mechanical arts

    • Known for inventing the chariot

    • Athena was senior partner to Hephaestus which “means the goddess who removes from sight”

Prehistory myth1
Prehistory - Myth

  • Minerva

    • Roman goddess of handicrafts, known for inventing the cart

    • First to make iron weapons

    • Specifically credited with inventing the distaff, needle, weaving, olive “mills” and the technique of making olive oil

Prehistory myth2
Prehistory - Myth

  • Brigit

    • Celtic Triple Goddess before becoming an Irish saint

    • Required her bishops to be practicing goldsmiths

  • Tsenabonpil (Melanesia), Miti-Miti (Siberia), and Sarasvati (India)

    • Examples from primitive groups who credit women ancestors with giving people “all knowledge”

The early tools
The Early Tools

  • Prehistory of Mechanics

    • 5 primary machines

      • Lever

      • Wedge

      • Screw

      • Pulley

      • Inclined Plane

    • Wheel and Axle

The early tools lever
The Early Tools - Lever

  • Lever is made of 3 parts: the weight, fulcrum, and power point.

    • 3 types of levers based on where the 3 components are

  • Earliest form of the lever is the digging stick

The early tools wedge
The Early Tools - Wedge

  • A wedge is used to separate two objects, or portions of objects, through the application of force, perpendicular to the inclined surfaces.

  • Used for splitting trees, breaking masses of ore, lifting weights, and hafting stone tools

  • Examples –knives, axes, nails, looms

The early tools inclined plane
The Early Tools – Inclined Plane

  • The inclined plane permits one to overcome a large resistance by applying a relatively small force through a longer distance than the load is to be raised.

  • Since women were the burden bearers they are more likely to have invented the inclined plane

The early tools screw
The Early Tools - Screw

  • A screw is used to translate torque into linear force. It can also be defined as an inclined plane wrapped around a shaft.

  • Mayan culture has a screw-top ceramic jar

    • Pottery making was predominantly or exclusively women’s work in 80 out of 105 societies

The early tools pulley
The Early Tools - Pulley

  • Pulleys are usually used in sets designed to reduce the amount of force needed to lift a load.

  • Amount of work is the same with or without pulleys

    • Vertically or horizontally

    • “dead-eye” pulley used rope wrapped around a tree

Wheel and axle
Wheel and Axle

  • Rotary Motion

    • Replaced back and forth motion

  • Fly-wheel

  • Sister Tabitha Babbitt

    • Invented the circular saw in 1810

Wheel and axle1
Wheel and Axle

  • Sindhi women and the rotary churn

  • Meso-American culture

  • Rollers

    • Women Eskimos

    • Malta’s Temples

Primate ethology
Primate Ethology

  • Chimps used natural hammers when cracking nuts in Ivory Coast, Africa

    • Coula nut: easily use a rock on the ground or eat in the “food tree”

    • Hard-shelled Panda nut

  • Equal number ate the easy way

  • Very few male chimps ate in the trees or ate the Panda nut.

Takeover myth and history
Takeover – Myth and History

  • Semiramis

    • 3 different Middle Eastern queens

    • Sammuramat, Naqi’a, and Nitokris

  • Sammuramat

    • Assyrian Queen (ruled 810-738 BCE)

    • War-like accomplishments

    • Most likely the leader in her son’s wars

    • Invented or improved siege engines

    • Capitalized on the chastity belt brought from Near East

Takeover myth and history1
Takeover – Myth and History

  • Naqi’a (ruled 5 generations later)

    • Husband destroyed Babylon

    • Large-flood control reservoir and flood walls

    • Built mighty fortification wall, bridge across the Euphrates, two palaces, reservoir outside the city, and a temple

  • Nitokris (Naqi’a in Herodotus)

    • Legend of the subterranean hall, flooding it, and drowning the men who murdered her husband

    • Used a new kind of arch when building the third pyramid of Giza

  • Semiramis, Naqi’a, and Nitokris ruled in their own rights

Takeover myth and history2
Takeover – Myth and History

  • Hypatia of Alexandria

    • Very beautiful and educated

    • Professor of astronomy, math, philosophy, and mechanics

    • Inventions include:

      • Astrolabe

      • Method to distil water

      • Instrument to measure water

      • Hydroscope or hydrometer

    • Brutally murdered by Christian fanatics

      • Symbolizes the end of ancient science

Takeover the printing press
Takeover – The Printing Press

  • Did women invent the printing press?

    • Arguable

  • 3 major improvements

    • Wood Engraving

      • 15th Century, Isabella Cunio and her twin brother

    • Syllable Type

      • 19th Century, unknown woman

    • Problem with perfect registry

      • 19th Century, Helen Bruneau Van Vechten


  • Religion

    • Men were in charge/owned women including their inventions and patents

  • Domesticating Women

    • Loss of interaction with the environment

    • Lack of education

    • Lack of time

    • Lack of money

  • Marx View

    • Men controlled resources (women’s time)

Tools of the ancient world
Tools of the Ancient World

  • Egypt

    • Level

    • Square

    • Scale

    • Mallet

Tools of the ancient world1
Tools of the Ancient World

  • Egypt

    • Chisel

    • Sketch

    • Pigment

    • Boning Rods

Tools of the ancient world2
Tools of the Ancient World

  • China

    • Foundry

    • Hydraulics and Irrigation

    • Two Man Silk Loom

The mill
The Mill

  • New Process Millstone Flour Mill, 1878

  • Water Powered Mills

    • Vitruvian Mechanism

      • Rock to agitate the hopper to create an automatic feed

      • Vertical versus horizontal blade alignment in water

      • Gear ratios

Medieval catapult
Medieval Catapult

  • Could bring Castles down

  • Hurl projectiles great distances

  • Assembled on site

  • Trebuchet and ballista

Leonardo davincci
Leonardo DaVincci

  • Calculating machine

    • Each complete turn changed a wheel

    • 13 wheels

  • Other Machines

    • Emergency Bridge

    • Grindstone with Sieve

Landmark 19th century machines
Landmark 19th Century Machines

  • McCormick Reaper

    • Woman nailed shears on a board and wired them so one wire opened them and the other closed them

    • Revolutionize the agriculture industry

  • Small Electric Motor

    • Emily Goss Davenport tore her wedding dress to wind the silk around the coils of an electro magnet

    • Are vital to household appliances

Landmark 19th century machines1
Landmark 19th Century Machines

  • Burden Horseshoe Machine

    • Feminists of the 19th and 20th Centuries confidently claim that this machine was invented by a woman, but there are no names.

    • Cut the cost of horseshoes, improved horse drawn traveling

Landmark 19th century machines2
Landmark 19th Century Machines

  • Sewing Machine

    • Helen Augusta Blanchard – zigzag stitch

    • Nina H Piffard and Eva J. Hall – self-threading needle

  • Dishwasher

    • Josephine G. Cochran – first commercial dishwasher

Landmark 19th century machines3
Landmark 19th Century Machines

  • Washing Machine

    • Martha H. Sanderson – Washing fluid

    • Margaret Plunkett Colvin – Triumph Rotary Washer

  • Typewriter

    • Lizzy Streshley – Machine for the blind

    • Anna M. Rothert – Upper case treadle attachment

Landmark 19th century machines4
Landmark 19th Century Machines

  • Electrical

    • Mary Riggins – Railway crossing gate

    • Elizabeth E. Bell – Telephone mouthpiece

  • Domestic Labor Saving

    • Nancy Graham – 2 stove patents

    • Sarah B. Stearns – Improved carpet cleaner

  • Industrial and Manufacturing

    • Mary Dixon Kies – straw weaving machine

    • Mary Jane Montgomery – improved apparatus for punching corrugated metal

Landmark 19th century machines5
Landmark 19th Century Machines

  • Office Machines

    • Ellie N. Sperry – Check punch

    • Mary E. Winter – Adding machine

  • Power Generation and Engines

    • Maria Beasley – Steam generator

    • Margaret Knight – Rotary factory-driving engines

  • Transportation

    • Annie H. Chilton – Combination horse detacher and brake

    • Sarah P. Mather – Submarine telescope and lamp

Landmark 19th century machines6
Landmark 19th Century Machines

  • Key Women Inventers

    • Mlle Crepin – Band saw in 1846

    • Mary Jane Montgomery

      • Improved war vessel, improvement for

        locomotive wheels, bridge

    • Harriet Ruth Tracey – 16 patents

      • Elevators, sewing machines, fire escape, stove

    • Maria E. Beasley – 14 patents

      • Barrel making machines, Barrel-setting-up machine, steam generator, anti-derailment device