Deduction
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Deduction. biases and content effects bias = whenever there is a systematic deviation in performance from the normative approach. Belief Bias. make conclusions based on personal beliefs about the world (you are supposed to use logical rules to draw conclusions)

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Deduction

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Deduction

Deduction

  • biases and content effects

  • bias = whenever there is a systematic deviation in performance from the normative approach


Belief bias

Belief Bias

  • make conclusions based on personal beliefs about the world (you are supposed to use logical rules to draw conclusions)

  • Selma Hayek looks best sporting the “uni-brow” that she had in “Frida”

  • Ben Affleck and Jennifer Lopez will have a longlasting marriage


Validity of the silly statement

Validity of the silly statement

  • sometimes being logical, means providing reasons for your conclusions

  • Women look their best when sporting a “unibrow”

  • The actress that played “Frida” sported a unibrow

  • Selma Hayek is the actress that played “Frida”

  • Selma Hayek looked best sporting the “unibrow” that she had in “Frida”


Laboratory evidence

Laboratory evidence

  • Believable conclusions = are consistent with your personal beliefs

  • Unbelievable conclusions = are inconsistent with your personal beliefs (e.g., unibrow statement)

  • also, valid and invalid conclusions

  • believable/valid, believable/invalid, unbelievable/valid, unbelievable/invalid


Results

Results

  • Evans, Newstead, & Byrne (1993)

  • % of conclusions accepted as valid

  • Valid Invalid

  • Believable 86% 66%

  • Unbelievable 62% 13%

  • conclusion: the believability of a statement has a strong influence on people’s critical thinking (i.e., belief-bias effect)


Content effects

content effects

  • def.: whenever the “content” (i.e., the specific words) influences your critical thinking performance

  • normative approach  content is irrelevant and should not influence your performance


Wason selection task

Wason selection task

  • Manchester Leeds Train Car

  • (imagine that these are four cards, each having a city on one side and a mode of transportation on the other)

  • “Every time I go to Manchester I travel by train”

  • answer: turn over Manchester and Car


Results in laboratory

results in laboratory

  • Wason & Shapiro (1971)

  • showed that students did a good job with this version of the task compared to an abstract version

  • conclusion  adding realistic words (content) to an abstract problem improved performance (thus, it’s a content effect)


Guaranteed solution to the selection task algorithm

guaranteed solution to the selection task (algorithm)

  • D B 3 5 7

  • If a card has a D on one side, then it has a 3 on the other side.

  • answer: D, 5, 7

  • p not p q not q not q

  • If p, then q

  • answer: p, not q


Test 1 study guide

Test 1 Study Guide

  • normative approach, descriptive approach

  • logic, def. of rational

  • logic vs. real-life

  • syllogisms, deduction, parts of the syllogism, validity of conclusion, algorithm, Euler’s circles

  • conditional reasoning problems, conditional, content of a problem vs. logical structure


Test 1 cont

Test 1 (cont.)

  • logical rules related to conditional reasoning, affirming the antecedent, etc. (including modus ponens, modus tollens)

  • Wason selection task, abstract vs. realistic content of a problem

  • logical operators, if…then, and, or, not; two types of “or” (exclusive, inclusive)

  • disjunctive reasoning; deontic content or deontic reasoning


Test 1 cont1

Test 1 (cont.)

  • bias, belief-bias, personal beliefs vs. logic, content effects


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