An Examination of the Development of Creativity of Young Children in Four Childcare Centres in Hong ...
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An Examination of the Development of Creativity of Young Children in Four Childcare Centres in Hong Kong. Kam Shau Wan, Sanly 12 August 2006. Context of the Study.

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Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

An Examination of the Development of Creativity of Young Children in Four Childcare Centres in Hong Kong

Kam Shau Wan, Sanly

12 August 2006


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Context of the Study

In Hong Kong, there is a growing awareness that young children’s learning is enhanced when they are encouraged to express and develop their creativity during the learning process. However, very little research has been done locally with respect to the development of creativity in young children and the relationship between creativity and learning.


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Education Commission of Hong Kong (2000):

Education Blueprint for the 21st Century - Learning for Life Learning through Life

“critical and exploratory thinking, innovating and adapting to change to be one of the core elements of the overall aims of education.”


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Curriculum Development Council of Hong Kong (2006):

Guide to the Pre-primary Curriculum

“one of the development objectives for young children in the aesthetic development domain, an objective to stimulate children’s creative and imaginative powers, and encourage them to enjoy participating in creative works”


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Aim of the Research Study

  • how young children express and develop their creativity, both individually and as a group

  • how teachers may be trained to adopt the Reggio Emilia Approach to foster creativity in children in Hong Kong

  • how young children expressed their creativity

  • the factors that contributed to their creative products and creative performances in Child Care Centre settings in Hong Kong


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

The Fundamental Questions :

  • In what ways did young children express their creativity? What were the creative practices of young children in Hong Kong in selected child care centres in the study?

  • 2. How were young children’s creative performances being interpreted and appreciated (or ignored) by their teachers and peers? In what ways did the present programme in the Child Care Centre classroom environment in Hong Kong nurture children’s creativity?

  • 3.  Were there ways to elicit, stimulate or extend the creative abilities of young children?

  • 4. What were the difficulties and constraints in fostering creativity in Child Care Centre settings and how do they affect children’s creative expression?


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

5. What were the teachers’ views with respect to their roles in nurturing creativity in children at the early childhood level?

6. How could teachers stimulate and foster creativity among young children?

7. What kinds of group factors facilitated or inhibited the creative behaviour of young children?

8. In what ways could teachers adopt the Reggio Emilia Approach in the context of Hong Kong?

9. Would the Reggio Emilia Approach (including teaching methods, documentation system, and parents’ involvement) help to foster creativity in children in Hong Kong


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Research Subjects

  • 151 children aged 5-6 in 4 selected Child Care Centres

  • 2 day care centres act as the experimental group, using the Reggio Emilia Approach. The other two centres acted as the control group, using the customary practice of Integrated Approach


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Overall Methodological Approach

Qualitative Methodologies

  • The Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT)

  • In-depth case studies

  • Interviews of teachers

  • Child profiling

The Quantitative Methodology

The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) --

Thinking Creatively with Pictures


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Quantitative Study

Pre-test

Collecting quantitative data

Post-test

Collecting quantitative data

Performing Statistical analysis

Control

Group

Drawing conclusions

Pre-test

Collecting quantitative data

Post-test

Collecting quantitative data

Performing Statistical analysis

Experimental

Group

Sample

elections

Qualitative Study

Collecting

qualitative data

Performing

content analysis

The integrity of qualitative and quantitative paradigms of this study


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

The Adopted Reggio Emilia Approach

Children have a ‘hundred ways of knowing, of feeling, and understanding’ (Malaguzzi 1996, p.1)

They use the utilization of graphic, visual, and performing arts, as an integral part as co-constructor of knowledge, and a researcher, actively seeking to make meaning of the world, often in collaboration with others (Millikan 2003, p33)


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT)

Torrance 1962

1. Five Aspects of Children’s Creativity

  • Fluency

  • Originality

  • Elaboration

  • Abstractness of Titles

  • Resistance to Premature Closure


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

2. Thirteen Aspects of Creative Strength

  • Emotional Expressiveness

  • Storytelling Articulateness

  • Movement or Action

  • Expressiveness of Titles

  • Synthesis of Incomplete Figures

  • Synthesis of Lines

  • Unusual Visualization

  • Internal Visualization

  • Extending or Breaking Boundaries

  • Humor

  • Richness of Imagery

  • Colorfulness of Imagery

  • Fantasy


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Initial Findings of Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT)


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Table 1: Gender Distribution of Participants in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Control

Experimental

Mean (SD)

Mean (SD)

Mean Difference

t

Fluency

88.10 (22.37)

107.83 (16.28)

19.73

6.26*

Originality

103.59 (21.47)

125.84 (17.42)

22.25

7.03*

Elaboration

88.89 (17.32)

111.12 (16.94)

22.23

7.95*

Abstractness of Titles

44.16 (45.21)

45.84 (42.86)

1.68

0.23

Resistance to Premature Closure

58.65 (33.94)

80.35 (21.60)

21.70

4.76*

Emotional Expressiveness

0.06 (0.29)

0.26 (0.53)

0.20

2.79*

Storytelling Articulateness

0.34 (0.71)

0.51 (0.72)

0.17

1.42

Movement or action

1.50 (0.71)

1.42 (0.65)

-0.08

-0.72

Expressiveness of Titles

0.30 (0.58)

0.62 (0.73)

0.32

2.93*

Synthesis of Incomplete Figures

0.00 (0.00)

0.06 (0.29)

0.06

1.65

Synthesis of Lines or Circles

0.04 (0.25)

0.25 (0.55)

0.21

2.92*

Unusual Visualization

1.34 (0.71)

1.83 (0.42)

0.49

5.22*

Internal Visualization

1.49 (0.57)

1.90 (0.35)

0.41

5.42*

Extending or Breaking Boundaries

0.94 (0.57)

1.23 (0.71)

0.29

2.75*

Humor

0.00 (0.00)

0.17 (0.45)

0.17

3.19*

Richness of Imagery

0.04 (0.19)

0.23 (0.52)

0.19

2.97*

Colorfulness of Imagery

0.45 (0.67)

0.45 (0.61)

0.00

-0.02

Fantasy

0.09 (0.28)

0.25 (0.50)

0.16

2.39*

Creative Strengths

6.60 (3.12)

9.17 (3.94)

2.57

4.40*

Creativity Index

82.79 (23.03)

102.99 (20.26)

20.20

5.73*

N=82

N=69

*p<.05 (two-tailed tests)

Table 2 Comparison of the means of control and experimental groups (posttest) (TTCT)


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Summary

Analysis of the data obtained by using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking indicated that the children in the experimental group manifested a significant improvement in creativity as compared with the children of the control group. Also the adoption of the Reggio Emilia approach appeared to be more advantageous for children’s creativity and learning than the present customary practice in early childhood education in Hong Kong (i.e. the so-called ‘integrated approach’). These results would be beneficial to early childhood staff working in Hong Kong.


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

The Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT) Amabile 1996

  • Creativity Cluster

  • Technical Cluster

  • Aesthetic Judgment


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Initial Findings of Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT)


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Table 1: Gender Distribution of Participants in The Consensual Assessment Technique


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Control

Experimental

Mean (SD)

Mean (SD)

Mean Difference

t

Creativity Cluster

2.99 (0.46)

3.38 (0.51)

0.39

4.94*

Technical Cluster

2.96 (0.47)

3.34 (0.51)

0.38

4.60*

Aesthetic Judgment

2.96 (0.48)

3.28 (0.59)

0.32

3.64*

N = 30

*p<.05 (two-tailed tests)

Table 3 Comparison of the means of the control and experimental groups (2nd measurement) (CAT)


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

Summary

The children in the experimental group manifested a significantly greater improvement in Creativity, including Technical Skills and Aesthetic Judgment, than did the children in the control group. It was therefore concluded that the Reggio Emilia approach was more effective than the existing integrated approach in engendering and nurturing children’s creativity. It also follows naturally and logically from this finding that the holistic development of children must benefit when their creativity, aesthetic and technical abilities are enhanced.


Kam shau wan sanly 12 august 2006

The End


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