Absolutism
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Absolutism. Absolutism. Absolutism The monarch (king) was absolute, all power emanated from his unlimited authority. Divine Right Theory of Kings—The monarch was God’s representative on earth, kings were anointed with holy water at their coronations.

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Absolutism

Absolutism


Absolutism1

Absolutism

Absolutism

The monarch (king) was absolute, all power emanated from his unlimited authority.

Divine Right Theory of Kings—The monarch was God’s representative on earth, kings were anointed with holy water at their coronations.

Where have we heard of this concept before?


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Absolutism

Bourbons of France

How do they come to power?

French Civil war

Huguenots VS. Catholics

(Calvinists)


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Absolutism

History.wisc.edu


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Absolutism

Marlowe-society.org

Henry of Navarre

=

Henry IV of France

First Bourbon king

Instituted the Edict of Nantes in 1598

Religious toleration of the Huguenots


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Absolutism

Louis XIII

--Henry IV’s son

--ruled from 1610-1643

--Maria de Medici his mother (Catholic) serves as his regent

--He is only 9 years-old when he becomes king


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Absolutism

Galleryhistoricalfigures.com

Cardinal Richelieu

Chief Minister for Louis XIII in 1624.

He is influential during this time because he controls the bureaucrats.


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Policies of Louis XIII (Cardinal Richelieu)

Sale of Office

Anyone who worked for the king the position or office had to be purchased. Paulette—a fee paid to keep the office holder’s position. It would remain in his family when he died.

Nobles

Reduced their influence, gave them positions as diplomats, soldiers and officials

Huguenots

Ended their political independence and advances


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Absolutism

Policies of Louis XIII (Cardinal Richelieu)

Intendants

Government agents in localities

Purpose

Recruited people for the army

Supervised the raising of taxes

Enforced the kings decrees

Disliked by peasants and threatened the power of the nobles


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Absolutism

Who is in this painting?

What do you think is going on in this painting?

What is the message of this painting? Why did the author paint it?

Architecturalwatercolors.blogspot.com


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Absolutism

Louis XIV (1643-1715)

He was known as the Sun King. He represented this by having coins show the rays of sun falling onto Louis and then to his subjects. This symbolized warmth and life given by the monarch.

Versailles Palace—Louis XIV’s court by 1680s. He split the court and the palace. Versailles Palace was home Paris was the government. It was the largest building of its day.

Architecturalwatercolors.blogspot.com


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Absolutism

Versailles Palace

A-gc.com


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Absolutism

Versailles Palace

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XxIzMr2Ekpo

A-gc.com


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Louis XIV’s Absolutist Government

--The use of armed force

--Formulation and execution of laws

--Collection and expenditure of revenue,

taxation

Financial Advisor—Jean Baptist Colbert,utilized the policy of mercantilism, colonies exist for the benefit of the mother country. A nation’s wealth was measured in its gold and silver, more exports than imports.


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Domestic Policy—

Edict of Nantes from 1685 revoked, why?

To promote unity however, it had economic consequences.

1 million Huguenots either leave the country or convert to Catholicism.


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Hapsburgs of Germany and Spain

Charles VFerdinand-Isabella

Holy Roman Joanna

Emperor 1519 -Archduke Philip of Austria

King of Spain

(1516-1556)

grandparents

daughter

son


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Hapsburgs of Germany and Spain


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Absolutism

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

Artrenewal.org


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Absolutism

King Philip II of Spain

(1556-1598)

Charles V’s son

--Married to Queen Mary I

Henry VIII’s daughter

--Supports Catholics in

France against Henry IV

--Defeated by the English

in 1588

--Defeats Muslims at Lepanto

in 1571

Historicalportraits.com


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Absolutism

King Philip II of Spain

And the Spanish Invincible Armada, La Armada Grande

--Was originally friends with Elizabeth I

--He facilitated her accession and

supported her against the claims of

Mary Stuart

--He intervened powerfully in her favor to

prevent French aid from being sent to

Scotland.

--With the upswing of Protestantism

relations between England and Spain

begin to turn

Historicalportraits.com


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Absolutism

King Philip II of Spain

And the Spanish Invincible Armada, La Armada Grande

So, What Went Wrong?

—Spanish ships were robbed with impunity in the English channel

—The Protestant groups in the Netherlands started to rebel in 1566

which were supported by England. Spain supported Catholics in

Netherlands.

—In 1568, a Spanish ship docked in Plymouth and filled with pay for

the Spanish army in Flanders was seized by the English.


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King Philip II of Spain VS. Queen Elizabeth I

– In the Spring of 1587, Francis Drake cruised off the coast of Spain and contrary to Elizabeth’s wishes attacked Spanish shipping, burnt the half-finished and unmanned ships at Cadiz and did enormous damage to the Spanish navy.

—The Armada left Lisbon on May 20, 1588. It consisted of 130 ships and 30, 493 men but half of the ships were transports and two-thirds of the men were soldiers. It went to the harbor of Carunna for retrofitting.

—The Armada sailed out for Flanders on July 12.

—One ship was reported captured three sank and four or five ran ashore


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Peter Alexowitz (the Great)


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Absolutism

Peter the Great

National Maritime Museum

http://www.rmg.co.uk/explore/sea-and-ships/facts/explorers-and-leaders/peter-the-great


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Absolutism

Peter the Great

http://www.neva.ru/EXPO96/book/chap2-1.html

Saint-Petersburg.com

http://www.saint-petersburg.com/history/pre-history.asp


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Absolutism

Tudorhistory.org

English Civil War

Previous Conditions

Edward VI—Henry’s 10 year old son inherited the throne. Advisors were Protestants. Thomas Cranmer was using the Book of Common Prayer. Protestant service while keeping Catholic Doctrine.

http://tudorhistory.org/edward/


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English Civil War

Previous Conditions

Mary Tudor wants to return England to Catholic faith. She is the younger sister of Henry VIII

http://tudorhistory.org/mary/


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Absolutism

English Civil War

Previous Conditions

Queen Elizabeth (1533-1603) (r. 1558-1603)

She was the last of the Tudors. She wasn’t married. Her Minister Robert Cecil enabled the King of Scotland, James Stuart to succeed her.

http://tudorhistory.org/elizabeth/

Englishhistory.net


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Absolutism

English Civil War

Previous Conditions

Mary Queen of Scots

A Catholic, hoped she would inherit the throne.

Elizabeth had Mary executed in 1587. She was the great grand niece of Henry VIII.

http://englishhistory.net/tudor/relative/maryqosbiography.html

Englishhistory.net


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English Civil War

Causes

The Gentry

--Newest group in society looking for respectability.

--Maintained agricultural holdings and crown offices.

--Three-quarters of the House of Commons were gentry, well educated and could approve all taxation.


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English Civil War

Causes

The Debt

The war with Spain in 1588,

created an economic depression

John Stuart, King of Scotland and England was left with a 400,000 debt.


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Absolutism

English Civil War

Causes

The Puritans

Puritans were English Calvinists. They believed the Protestant Anglican church was too close to Roman Catholicism. By 1639, the Calvinist Scots took up arms rather than accept the Anglican prayer book.


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English Civil War

Causes

The King

James I (r. 1603—1625)

He was not well liked by the people of England.

He was a foreigner, Scottish and an absolutist. He was known as James VI, King of Scotland.


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Absolutism

History.wisc.edu

The Parliament showed their dislike of James I in a number of ways:

1. Forced his ministers

to resign

2. blocked the union of

England and Scotland

3. Only Anglicans allowed

to hold public office


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Charles I (r. 1625-1649)

James I son takes over in 1625.

During the Parliament of 1628-1629,

He agrees to the Petition of Right

which grants more rights to the

people such as:

End to imprisonment w/o cause

Taxation w/o consent of

Parliament

End to martial law in peacetime

End to billeting of troops among

civilians

http://www.hrp.org.uk/HamptonCourtPalace/escape

Sites.psu.edu


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Absolutism

English Civil War

Causes of the English Civil War

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u3h_RyFEV0M


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Charles I agrees to the Petition of Right but breaks his word on all the issues.

He orders Parliament dissolved until 1640. By 1639, the Calvinist Scots took up arms rather than accept the Anglican prayer book. By 1640, the Scots occupy most of northern England.

Charles I then approaches Parliament to raise money to fight the Scots.

Charles I starts the Long Parliament which lasts for 13 years.


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Absolutism

Religious Reform

English Civil War starts in 1642

Royalist VS. Anti-Royalists

--Anglican --Puritan (Roundheads)

--North and west of England --Controlled House of Commons

--South and east of England

Oliver Cromwell and his new Model Army defeat the Royalist in 1646.


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What happens to Charles I?

He was executed because he was plotting to return

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ig8lwsb_Gyw


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Absolutism

Nationalgalleries.org

Oliver Cromwell

--Ruled England from 1649 to 1660 (Interregnum)

--England is a republic at this time (Commonwealth)

--Dissolved Parliament twice due to lack of reforms.

--Ends the Long Parliament in 1653

--Parliament offers him the crown in 1656 but refused

--His son alienated both the army and Parliament in effort succeed his father

http://www.nationalgalleries.org/collection/artists-a-z/W/10248/artist_name/Robert%20Walker/record_id/23774


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Restoration

Charles II (r. 1660-1685)

Charles I son

He forms a limited monarchy, meaning the king and Parliament share power.

After his death, James II (1633-1701), Charles I son takes power and rules from 1685-1688. He is Catholic and his second wife has a son who is also Catholic.


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Restoration

Why is this an issue and how is it resolved?

Glorious Revolution 1688

No Fighting or Bloodshed

William and Mary

William of Orange from the Netherlands and

Mary, James’s Protestant daughter rule England.


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