English for biology students
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English for Biology Students. Teacher:Kong Ling (Lucy) Tel:13864399755 Email: [email protected] [email protected] 200 8 年 8 月. Contents. Covers the fields of General Biology, Biochemistry and Molecular & Cell Biology; Focuses on being familiar with biological terms in the above areas;

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English for Biology Students

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English for biology students

English for Biology Students

Teacher:Kong Ling (Lucy)

Tel:13864399755

Email: [email protected]

[email protected]

2008年8月


Contents

Contents

  • Covers the fields of General Biology, Biochemistry and Molecular & Cell Biology;

  • Focuses on being familiar with biological terms in the above areas;

  • Introduces common scientific terms;

  • Gives a brief look at the composition of periodical papers;

  • Offers the opportunity to practice literature searching and writing scientific paper.


Contents1

Contents

  • Cellular structure

  • Photosynthesis

  • Cellular reproduction

  • Foundation of genetics

  • Discovering the chemical nature of gene

  • The origin and diversity of life

  • Fungi

  • Animal development

  • The origin of species

  • The ecology of population


English for biology students

Book

  • Text

  • Glossary

  • Exercises

  • additional information

  • reading comprehension

  • reading materials


English for biology students

Aim

  • To gain sufficient fundamental understanding of life science, and to be able to communicate in English the principles and function of living material;

  • To gain knowledge and skills of English relevant to careers either in biological sciences or in careers that utilize the informational content of research in biology;

  • To be able to use this information to analyze, evaluate and report new progress in research.


Lesson one

Lesson One

Inside the Living Cell: Structure and

Function of Internal Cell Parts


Animal cell and plant cell

Animal cell and plant cell


Glossary

Glossary

  • Glossary[5^lCsEri] n.术语表

    (1)难字[专业词, 外来语]汇编, 集注, 词汇表

    glossary of terms 术语汇编

    (2)A list of difficult or specialized words with their definitions, often placed at the back of a book.

    词汇表:难懂或专门性的词汇表,具有解释,常置于书后面部分。


English for biology students

actin[5Aktin] n. 肌动蛋白a globular contractile protein. In muscle cells, actin interacts with another protein, myosin, to bring about contraction.

  • basal body [5beisl 5bCdi] n. 基体

    A cellular organelle associated with the formation of cilia and flagella and similar to the centriole in structure.

    基体一个有纤毛和鞭毛构造的多孔细胞器,在结构上与中心粒相似


English for biology students

  • Centriole [ 5sentriEul ]n. 细胞中心粒

  • An organelle located close to the nucleus in most animal and lower plant cells but absent from prokaryotes and higher plants.

  • 中心体:由九个三联体微管组成的两个圆柱体细胞组织之一,在有丝分裂中形成星状体

  • Prokaryote [prEu`kAriEut] n. 原核生物

  • Eukaryote [ju:`kAriEut] n. 〈生〉真核生物


Prefix

prefix

  • Prokaryote [prEu`kAriEut] n. 原核生物

  • Eukaryote [ju:`kAriEut] n. 〈生〉真核生物

  • eu- pref.(前缀) Good; well; true:好,好的;有益的;真正的:euplastic.适于组织形成的

  • pro- pref.(前缀)Earlier; before; prior to:在…之前;先于;早于:procambium.原形成层;

  • Rudimentary:初步的:pronucleus.原核

  • Anterior; in front of:在先的;在…前面:procephalic.位于头前方的,头前部的;


English for biology students

  • Chemotaxis [9keimEu`tAksIs] n.[动物]化学向性,[生物]趋化现象, 趋药性(趋化性:组织或细胞在化学集中上朝向或远离化学刺激的特殊运动或定位作用)

  • A locomotory movement of an organism or cell in response to, and directed by, an external directional stimulus.

  • Locomotory [9lEJkE`mEJtErI] adj. 运动的, 移动的


English for biology students

  • 吞噬细胞的趋化作用


English for biology students

  • Chloroplast [5klC(:)rEplB:st]n.叶绿体

  • A plastid in which photosynthesis is carried out. Chloroplasts occur in all photosynthetic organisms except photosynthetic bacteria and blue-green algae.

  • Algae [5AldVi:] n. 藻类, 海藻

  • Chromosome[ 5krEumEsEum ] n. 染色体

  • Histone [ 5histEun ] n. 组蛋白

  • Telomere [5telEmiE] n. 端粒(在染色体端位上的着丝点)

  • Centromere [ 5sentrE7miE ] n. 着丝点, 着丝粒

    着丝粒:一个染色体上最密集、压缩的区域,有丝分裂时梭形纤维附着于此


Prefix1

Prefix

  • Chrom-颜色

  • Chromophore生色团;chromosome染色体;chromatography色谱法;

  • Chloro-,chlor-,绿,氯

  • Chlorophyll叶绿素;chloride氯化物;

  • Leu-,leuco-,leuk-, alb-,白色,无色

  • Leucine亮氨酸;Leucoplast白色体;leucosis=leukaemia白血病; albomycin白霉素


Suffix

Suffix

  • -plastsuff.(后缀)

  • A small body, structure, particle, or granule, especially of living matter; cell:

  • 表示“体”,“粒”,“团”:表示小的物体、结构、微粒或颗粒,尤指活性物质;细胞:

  • Chloroplast,tonoplast(液泡膜)


English for biology students

  • Cilia [5sIlIE] n. 睫, 纤毛Plural of cilium cilium的复数

  • Cytoplasm [ 5saitEuplAzm ] n. 细胞质

  • cyto- 或 cyt- pref.(前缀)Cell:细胞:cytoplasm.细胞质

  • Plasmalemma [ 7plAzmE5lemE ] n. 原生质膜, 质膜

    See: cell membrane

  • Aqueous [5eIkwIEs] adj. 水的;似水的;含水的;水中的

  • Hyaloplasm [ 5haiElC7plAzEm ] n. 透明质,细胞质中清澈、液状的部分 Also called: ground substance

  • Sap[sAp] n. 植物细胞的液胞内所含有的液体 cell sap 细胞液

  • Matrix [5meitriks] n. 细胞间质, 基质

  • Inclusion [ in5klu:VEn ] n. 内含物


English for biology students

Cytoskeletonn.细胞骨架The internal framework of a cell, composed largely of actin filaments and microtubules.

  • Dynein [`daInIn] n. 动力蛋白

  • ATPase [9eI9ti:`pi:9eIs] n. ATP酶,腺苷三磷酸酶

  • Endoplasmic reticulum n. 内质网

  • A membrane network within the cytoplasm of cells involved in the synthesis, modification, and transport of cellular materials.内质网参与合成、变异及运输细胞物质的细胞质内部的膜体系

  • Reticulum:网状物, 网状构造[组织] (反刍动物的)蜂巢胃【生】网状膜 【植】叶上的网脉


Prefix2

Prefix 表示方位

  • Endo-,ento-内,在内

  • Endocrine[5endEukrain]内分泌;endolysin [en5dClisin]内溶素;entoderm[5entEudE:m]内胚层

  • Ec-,ect-,exc-,extra-, 外,外面,表面;

  • Ectoblast[5ektEublAst]外胚层;extract[iks5trAkt]抽取,浸出 ;ectoparasite[7ektEu5pArEsait]外寄生物

  • Centri-,centro-,medi-,mid-中心,中央,中间

  • Centrifuge[5sentrifju:dV]离心;centriole[5sentriEul]中心粒;centrosome[5 sentrEsEum]中心体;


English for biology students

  • Flagella [flE5dVelE] n. 鞭节, 鞭毛

  • Golgi complex [5^CldVi 5kCmpleks] 高尔基体

  • Sac [ sAk ] n. 〈生〉囊;液囊

  • Lysosome[5laisEsEum]n. 溶酶体溶酶体:具膜器官,存在于细胞质中,内含多种水解酶,在细胞内消化中起作用。

  • Hydrolytic [9haIdrE`lItIk] adj. 水解的, 产生水解( 作用) 的


English for biology students

  • Microfilament [9maIkrEJ`fIlEmEnt]n.微丝,纤丝

    微丝,纤丝:任何一种存在于细胞质内的微小纤维,由肌纤蛋白组成,其基本功能是保持一个细胞的结构的完整。

  • Microtubule [7maikrEu5tju:bju:l] n. 微管

    微管:一种蛋白质,圆柱形中空结构,广泛分布于真核细胞的细胞质中,提供结构支撑并协助细胞运动及运输。


Mitochondrion 9maitej kcndrien n aerobic 7eie5reubik adj

Mitochondrion [ 9maItEJ`kCndrIEn]n. 线粒体Aerobic [7eiE5rEubik] adj. 生存于氧气中的; 好氧的; 需氧的

  • Myosin [ 5maiEsin ] 肌球蛋白, 阻凝蛋白

  • 肌球蛋白:在肌肉细胞中最普通的蛋白质,对肌肉的弹性和收缩性的特性很重要,它与肌动朊结合形成肌动球朊

  • Nuclear envelope [5nju:kliE 5envilEup]核膜, 核被膜

  • Lipid [5lIpId] n. 脂类,类脂


English for biology students

  • Nucleoid[ 5nju:kliCid ] n. 类核,核质体

  • 类核:含核酸并且功能与真核细胞核功能类似的细菌或病毒的部分

  • Nucleoli [ nju:5kliElai ] n. 核仁

  • nucleolus 的复数

  • 核仁:圆形的颗粒体,由蛋白质和细胞核中的核糖核酸构成,与特定染色体缔合有直接关系并涉及核糖体核糖核酸的合成和核糖体的形成

  • Nucleus [ 5nju:kliEs ] n. 胞核,核

  • pl. nuclei


English for biology students

Nucleus

Nucleoli

核仁


English for biology students

  • Phagocytosis [fA^E7sai5tEusis] n.噬菌(作用)

  • Engulf [in5^Qlf]vt.卷入, 吞没, 狼吞虎咽

  • engulf oneself in专心致志地..., 孜孜不倦地从事于...

  • Pinocytosis [7painEusai5tEusis] n. 胞饮(作用),饮液(作用)

  • Ribosome 核糖体,核蛋白体

  • A minute, round particle composed of RNA and protein found in the cytoplasm of living cells and active in the synthesis of proteins.

  • 核糖体一种微小圆形的由RNA及蛋白质构成的微粒,发现于活细胞的细胞质中,且活跃于蛋白质的合成中


English for biology students

Plastid质体 Plastids are specialized organelles found in plants. They can be divided into two basic types: leucoplasts and chromoplasts.


English for biology students

  • Stroma [5stroumE]子座,基质

  • Chlorophyll[5klC:rEfil] n.[生化]叶绿素

  • Tubulin [5tju:bjulin]微管蛋白

  • A globular protein that is the basic structural constituent of microtubules.

  • 微管蛋白一种球蛋白,是微管的基本结构成分


Vacuole 5 vakjueul n

Vacuole[5vAkjuEul]n. 液泡

  • 细胞的胞体浆里的水泡,只有单层的细胞膜,里面有水、食物和新陈代谢作用的废物。


English for biology students

Plasma membrane 原生质膜

Cristae嵴

Leucoplast白色体

chromoplast有色体

Grana基粒

Matrix基质

Doublet二联管


Plasma membrane

Plasma membrane 原生质膜


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