chapter 16 air pollution
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Chapter 16: Air Pollution

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Chapter 16: Air Pollution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 16: Air Pollution. 16.2 Natural Sources Of Air Pollution. Natural Combustion Decay Biological Emissions Chemical Particulate (spores, pollen, etc.) Wind-blown dust Volcanic. 16.3 Human-caused Air Pollution. We categorize pollutants according to their source

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16 2 natural sources of air pollution
16.2 Natural Sources Of Air Pollution
  • Natural Combustion
  • Decay
  • Biological Emissions
    • Chemical
    • Particulate (spores, pollen, etc.)
  • Wind-blown dust
  • Volcanic
16 3 human caused air pollution
16.3 Human-caused Air Pollution
  • We categorize pollutants according to their source
  • We also categorize pollutants according to their content
  • Unconventional pollutants also are important
  • Indoor air is more dangerous for most of us than outdoor air
classification of pollutants by source
Classification of Pollutants By Source
  • Primary: Direct emission
  • Secondary: Modified by environment (smog)
  • Fugitive: Non-point source (dust)
classification of pollutants by content
Classification of Pollutants By Content
  • Sulfur emissions
  • Nitrogen Compounds
  • Carbon: CO2 and CO
  • Particulate Matter
  • Metals (Hg, Cd) and Halogens (Cl, F, Br)
  • Volatile Organics (gasoline, pesticides)
16 4 climate topography and atmospheric processes
16.4 Climate, Topography, And Atmospheric Processes
  • Temperature inversions trap pollutants
  • Cities create dust domes and heat islands
  • Wind currents carry pollutants intercontinentally
  • Stratospheric ozone is destroyed by chlorine
  • The Montreal Protocol is a resounding success
inversion
Inversion?
  • Cold air on ground, warm up above
  • Isn’t that normal?
  • It’s what buoyancy does, but solar warming of the surface is stronger
  • Reverse of normal state of affairs (that’s why it’s an “inversion”)
  • Stratified air doesn’t circulate vertically, so pollutants accumulate
destroying ozone
Destroying Ozone
  • CFCL3 + UV Energy = CFCl2 + Cl
  • Cl + O3 = ClO + O2
  • O2 + UV Energy = 2O
  • ClO + O = Cl + O2
  • Cl+ O3 = ClO + O2 etc.
  • What about volcanic HCl?
    • Most scrubbed out in the eruption cloud
    • Very little gets into stratosphere
16 5 effects of air pollution
16.5 Effects Of Air Pollution
  • Polluted air causes lung diseases
  • How does pollution harm us?
  • Plants are susceptible to pollution damage
  • Acid deposition has many negative effects
  • Smog and haze reduce visibility
particulate matter1
Particulate Matter
  • In pre-industrial days, 100-mile visibility was normal
  • Haze was unusual
    • Great Smoky Mountains named because of natural forest aerosols
    • “Dry Fog” – sign of distant volcanic eruptions, was noted in chronicles
16 6 air pollution control
16.6 Air Pollution Control
  • Saving Energy and Reducing Pollution
  • The most effective strategy for controlling pollution is to minimize production
  • Fuel switching and fuel cleaning also are effective
  • Clean air legislation is controversial
16 7 current conditions and future prospects
16.7 Current Conditions And Future Prospects
  • Air pollution remains a problem in many places
  • There are signs of hope
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