Chapter 16 air pollution
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Chapter 16: Air Pollution. 16.2 Natural Sources Of Air Pollution. Natural Combustion Decay Biological Emissions Chemical Particulate (spores, pollen, etc.) Wind-blown dust Volcanic. 16.3 Human-caused Air Pollution. We categorize pollutants according to their source

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Chapter 16: Air Pollution

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Chapter 16 air pollution

Chapter 16: Air Pollution


16 2 natural sources of air pollution

16.2 Natural Sources Of Air Pollution

  • Natural Combustion

  • Decay

  • Biological Emissions

    • Chemical

    • Particulate (spores, pollen, etc.)

  • Wind-blown dust

  • Volcanic


16 3 human caused air pollution

16.3 Human-caused Air Pollution

  • We categorize pollutants according to their source

  • We also categorize pollutants according to their content

  • Unconventional pollutants also are important

  • Indoor air is more dangerous for most of us than outdoor air


Classification of pollutants by source

Classification of Pollutants By Source

  • Primary: Direct emission

  • Secondary: Modified by environment (smog)

  • Fugitive: Non-point source (dust)


Classification of pollutants by content

Classification of Pollutants By Content

  • Sulfur emissions

  • Nitrogen Compounds

  • Carbon: CO2 and CO

  • Particulate Matter

  • Metals (Hg, Cd) and Halogens (Cl, F, Br)

  • Volatile Organics (gasoline, pesticides)


16 4 climate topography and atmospheric processes

16.4 Climate, Topography, And Atmospheric Processes

  • Temperature inversions trap pollutants

  • Cities create dust domes and heat islands

  • Wind currents carry pollutants intercontinentally

  • Stratospheric ozone is destroyed by chlorine

  • The Montreal Protocol is a resounding success


Inversion

Inversion?

  • Cold air on ground, warm up above

  • Isn’t that normal?

  • It’s what buoyancy does, but solar warming of the surface is stronger

  • Reverse of normal state of affairs (that’s why it’s an “inversion”)

  • Stratified air doesn’t circulate vertically, so pollutants accumulate


Destroying ozone

Destroying Ozone

  • CFCL3 + UV Energy = CFCl2 + Cl

  • Cl + O3 = ClO + O2

  • O2 + UV Energy = 2O

  • ClO + O = Cl + O2

  • Cl+ O3 = ClO + O2 etc.

  • What about volcanic HCl?

    • Most scrubbed out in the eruption cloud

    • Very little gets into stratosphere


16 5 effects of air pollution

16.5 Effects Of Air Pollution

  • Polluted air causes lung diseases

  • How does pollution harm us?

  • Plants are susceptible to pollution damage

  • Acid deposition has many negative effects

  • Smog and haze reduce visibility


Chapter 16 air pollution

Smog


Particulate matter

Particulate Matter


Particulate matter1

Particulate Matter

  • In pre-industrial days, 100-mile visibility was normal

  • Haze was unusual

    • Great Smoky Mountains named because of natural forest aerosols

    • “Dry Fog” – sign of distant volcanic eruptions, was noted in chronicles


16 6 air pollution control

16.6 Air Pollution Control

  • Saving Energy and Reducing Pollution

  • The most effective strategy for controlling pollution is to minimize production

  • Fuel switching and fuel cleaning also are effective

  • Clean air legislation is controversial


16 7 current conditions and future prospects

16.7 Current Conditions And Future Prospects

  • Air pollution remains a problem in many places

  • There are signs of hope


Los angeles

Los Angeles


San francisco same day

San Francisco, Same Day


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