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INTRODUCTION. ID all species. Won’t work. Destroy traditional systematics. Discover new species. Speed up ID’s. Service industry. Revitalize biological collections . Pseudo taxonomy . Simple & Ambitious!. Advocates. Opposition. New Scientist. 26 June, 2004.

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION


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ID all species

Won’t work

Destroy traditional systematics

Discover new species

Speed up ID’s

Service industry

Revitalize biological collections

Pseudo taxonomy

Simple & Ambitious!

Advocates

Opposition


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New Scientist

26 June, 2004


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Trends in Ecology & Evolution

Feb. 2003. Vol. 18, Iss. 2

3 of these 5 are the most downloaded papers in TREE

1. Taxonomy: renaissance or

Tower of Babel?

Jim Mallet et al

4. A plea for DNA taxonomy

Tautz et al

5. The encyclopedia of life

Edward Wilson


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i) Should we devote resources towards sequencing a reference collection of specimens for the development a DNA barcoding system?

ii) Should DNA sequences play a primary role in the discovery of new species?

[Yes, No, or Abstain]

[Yes, No, or Abstain]

Propositions to vote on:

Vote before and after the debate!


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SPECIMENS


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1

2

3

4

5

Barcoding Specimens


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1

tubercled blossom

Wabash County, Illinois

EXTINCT

Class Bivalvia Linnaeus, 1758 -- bivalves

Order Unionoida Stoliczka, 1871

Family Unionidae Fleming, 1828

GenusEpioblasma Rafinesque, 1831

SpeciesEpioblasma torulosa (Rafinesque, 1820)

Specimen 1


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2

common cockchafer, May bug

Hungary

Class Insecta -- insects

Order Coleoptera -- beetles

Family Scarabaeidae -- scarab beetle

GenusMelolontha

SpeciesMelolontha melolontha (L., 1758)

Specimen 2

Very distinctive, but European


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3

Leech (no common name)

Illinois

Common & widespread in NA

Not very distinctive

Class Clitellata/Hirudinea Lamarck, 1818 -- leeches

Order Arhynchobdellida Blanchard, 1894

Family Erpobdellidae Blanchard, 1894

GenusErpobdella de Blainville, 1818

SpeciesErpobdella punctata (Leidy, 1870)

Specimen 3


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4

Psocid (no common name)

Arizona

Class Insecta -- insects

Order Psocoptera  -- psocids

Family Myopsocidae

GenusMyopsocus

SpeciesMyopsocus sp. n.

Specimen 4

New species, no PEET program!


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5

Fly Agaric

Illinois

e.g. of CONTAMINATION!

Vouchering essential, No COI

Class Homobasidiomycetae

Order Agaricales  -- stereotypical mushrooms

Family Amanitaceae

GenusAmanita

SpeciesAmanita muscaria var. formosa

Specimen 5


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• Some specimens unsuitable for barcoding

e.g. Fossilized/Extinct taxa

• Many taxa difficult/impossible to ID with

morphology

e.g. immature specimens, cryptic taxa etc

• Already in use for many taxa

( bacteria, fungi, Cetacea)

Conclusions

• No COI for many taxa

• No specialists for many taxa

• No training necessary for barcoding!


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DEBATE

QUESTIONS


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i) What are the barcoding regions and what are their properties that make them useful?

[Richard Pyle, Bishop Museum, USA – amongst others]

A) What is DNA Barcoding


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ii) Would the DNA barcode represent a *definition* of a species?

[David Fitch, New York University, USA – amongst others]

A) What is DNA Barcoding


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iii) How would DNA barcoding work in practice and who should be doing it?

  • [Vince Smith, Illinois Natural History Survey, USA]

A) What is DNA Barcoding


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i) How will the DNA barcoding identifications deal with the overlap between intraspecific and interspecific variation documented in many groups?

[Everybody!]

B) DNA barcoding in species identification


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ii) To what extent will DNA barcoding support the efforts of traditional taxonomy?

[David Yeates, CSIRO, Australia]

B) DNA barcoding in species identification


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iii) Is accuracy of identification (to the right clade) possible in the absence of accuracy in family- and genus-level topology?

  • [Jim Hayden, Cornell University, USA]

B) DNA barcoding in species identification


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i) How confident can we be in the utility of DNA barcodes to discover new species when it has been demonstrated that many species are not mitochondrially monophyletic, and thus share mitochondrial polymorphisms with other species?

[Daniel Funk, Vanderbilt University, USA]

C) DNA barcoding in species discovery


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ii) With a program of DNA barcoding what would be sufficient to demonstrate that a specimen represents a new species?

[Kevin Johnson, Illinois Natural History Survey, USA]

C) DNA barcoding in species discovery


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i) What will be the role of systematists in a world where most identifications are done by "barcode" and will the expansion of sequencing efforts come at the expense of systematics in general

[Jim Hayden, Cornell University, USA]

D) Political & practical implications


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ii) Assuming the technical problems of DNA barcoding can be overcome is it now, or will it ever be cost-effective relative to traditional methods to use DNA barcodes for bioinventory purposes?

[Derek S. Sikes, University of Calgary, Canada]

D) Political & practical implications


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iii) Will identification by barcodes increase people's enthusiasm for living things?

  • [Jim Hayden, Cornell University, USA]

D) Political & practical implications


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CLOSING

REMARKS


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i) Should we devote resources towards sequencing a reference collection of specimens for the development a DNA barcoding system?

ii) Should DNA sequences play a primary role in the discovery of new species?

[Yes, No, or Abstain]

[Yes, No, or Abstain]

Propositions to vote on:


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Lessons for the all species project, from the human genome project…

Kevin Kelly

  • The Human Genome Project featured a goal that probably would have happened anyway over time… It took ordinary work and raised it to the level of legend and myth by attempting to complete it "all" in a relatively short time. The Genome project then is primarily distinguished by its emphasis on "all."


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Lessons for the all species project, from the human genome project…

Kevin Kelly

  • A reoccurring theme in the mission statement of the All Species Inventory is the need for radically different and new tools. All Species must be open to the possibility of succeeding using enhanced existing tools applied in new ways, or simply old tools automated to lightening speed. However because current taxonomic procedures are so low tech, almost any improvement may resemble radical technology.


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Lessons for the all species project, from the human genome project…

Kevin Kelly

  • All Species has an even better chance to become a project the public cares about. Far more people can identify a known species than can identify a known DNA sequence… This is a project that can relate to everyone: All species for all people.

  • Someday all the species living on earth will be identified, although surely not all the ones alive today. Why not now?


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Acknowledgements:

The Panel: Paul Hebert & Kip Will

The Students: Martin Hauser, Daniela Takiya, Mathys Meyer, Floyd Shockley, & Jamie Zahniser

Specimen providers: Kevin Cummings, Martin Hauser, Andrew Miller, Mark Wetzle, & Kazunori Yoshizawa

Conference organisers: Especially Mike Irwin & Gail Kampmeier

Funding: National Science Foundation


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