From Division to Brigade - Centric

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From Division to Brigade - Centric. FROM: An Army based around large, powerful, fixed organizations. TO: An Army designed around smaller, more self-contained organizations. . . . and modular multi-functional Support Brigades. . Aviation. . Fires. . Sustainment. . RSTA. Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition .

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From Division to Brigade - Centric

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1. The Engineer Regiment is keeping in step with the fast changes of the Modular Force. We will show you how we have very methodically redesigned our regiment to better support the Modular Force We have also teamed very closely with CASCOM and together blazing the way for the rest of the army in developing a Modular CSS Structure for proponent organizations. The Engineer Regiment is keeping in step with the fast changes of the Modular Force. We will show you how we have very methodically redesigned our regiment to better support the Modular Force We have also teamed very closely with CASCOM and together blazing the way for the rest of the army in developing a Modular CSS Structure for proponent organizations.

2. Our current Army is a divisional one. We will become a brigade-based Army. We will take much of the structure in the division, and some at the Corps level, and create powerful, broad-spectrum, brigade-level Units of Action, that are much more capable of independent action. Currently, to get a broad-spectrum force, we start with a brigade and then add in all the enablers and then reinforce/task organize as needed. Once that’s done we often have many parts of different units left over, which are of limited use. UAs will be permanently task-organized so as to require minimal augmentation, if any. The obvious advantage is the ability to train and work with all of your organic units Divisions will still have important roles, and will become capable of being used as a JTF-HQs as we move to a Unit of Employment X design. UEx will have Corps-level attributes as well. A UEx will command and control up to six maneuver UAs and numerous functional UAs. Support UAs themselves will be standardized so that one aviation or fires SUA looks like another. Active and Reserve units with the same organizational designs Brigade-sized units packaged to deploy more rapidly than Divisions Flexible groupings of modular brigades tailor capabilities to missions More units create a larger number available to rotate into operations Our current Army is a divisional one. We will become a brigade-based Army. We will take much of the structure in the division, and some at the Corps level, and create powerful, broad-spectrum, brigade-level Units of Action, that are much more capable of independent action. Currently, to get a broad-spectrum force, we start with a brigade and then add in all the enablers and then reinforce/task organize as needed. Once that’s done we often have many parts of different units left over, which are of limited use. UAs will be permanently task-organized so as to require minimal augmentation, if any. The obvious advantage is the ability to train and work with all of your organic units Divisions will still have important roles, and will become capable of being used as a JTF-HQs as we move to a Unit of Employment X design. UEx will have Corps-level attributes as well. A UEx will command and control up to six maneuver UAs and numerous functional UAs. Support UAs themselves will be standardized so that one aviation or fires SUA looks like another. Active and Reserve units with the same organizational designs Brigade-sized units packaged to deploy more rapidly than Divisions Flexible groupings of modular brigades tailor capabilities to missions More units create a larger number available to rotate into operations

3. THIS CHART WILL REFRESH YOU ON WHAT THE TRANSITION WILL LOOK LIKE AND THE RESPECTIVE PLACES OF THE BRIGADES AND UEX AND UEY. THIS CHART ILLUSTRATES THE CHANGE IN ECHELONMENT OF ARMY FORCES. IT IS BASED ON CSA GUIDANCE CONCERNING THE COMPLEMENTARY FUNCTIONAL, VICE HIERARCHICAL BASIS FOR THE DESIGN UEY AND UEX. THE UEX AND UEY ARE COMPLEMENTARY FUNCTIONAL HEADQUARTERS WITH DISTINCT DESIGN RESPONSIBILITIES. THE UEX MAY WORK FOR THE UEY, BUT THE PRIMARY SEPARATION OF RESPONSIBILITIES IS BY FUNCTION. THUS, MANY SITUATIONS WILL FIND BOTH THE UEX AND UEY WORKING FOR JOINT FORCE COMMANDERS, BUT IN DIFFERENT CAPACITIES. THIS CHART WILL REFRESH YOU ON WHAT THE TRANSITION WILL LOOK LIKE AND THE RESPECTIVE PLACES OF THE BRIGADES AND UEX AND UEY. THIS CHART ILLUSTRATES THE CHANGE IN ECHELONMENT OF ARMY FORCES. IT IS BASED ON CSA GUIDANCE CONCERNING THE COMPLEMENTARY FUNCTIONAL, VICE HIERARCHICAL BASIS FOR THE DESIGN UEY AND UEX. THE UEX AND UEY ARE COMPLEMENTARY FUNCTIONAL HEADQUARTERS WITH DISTINCT DESIGN RESPONSIBILITIES. THE UEX MAY WORK FOR THE UEY, BUT THE PRIMARY SEPARATION OF RESPONSIBILITIES IS BY FUNCTION. THUS, MANY SITUATIONS WILL FIND BOTH THE UEX AND UEY WORKING FOR JOINT FORCE COMMANDERS, BUT IN DIFFERENT CAPACITIES.

4. Modularity represents a departure from the division-centric focus our Army has had since WWII. Currently, when a brigade is tasked for duty, the first thing it has to do is reorganize by taking pieces and parts from other areas of the division, such as artillery and engineering, in order to cobble together a BCT. Modularity changes that by creating standing combined arms brigades containing the combined arms capabilities necessary to deploy to a fight. Basically, we will organize as we fight. This includes adding access to joint capabilities at much lower levels with a more robust network for communications, more joint and specialized personnel, and enhanced training and leader development. These brigade combat teams will be either Infantry, Heavy or Stryker. Additionally, we are creating support brigades in such areas as maneuver enhancement, RSTA, aviation, fires and sustainment. This also sets the stage for the Future Combat Systems equipped future force by implementing now several doctrine, organization, and leader development activities we envision for FCS equipped units. This concept allows the Joint Force Commander greater flexibility to mix and match brigades depending on the operation. Modularity represents a departure from the division-centric focus our Army has had since WWII. Currently, when a brigade is tasked for duty, the first thing it has to do is reorganize by taking pieces and parts from other areas of the division, such as artillery and engineering, in order to cobble together a BCT. Modularity changes that by creating standing combined arms brigades containing the combined arms capabilities necessary to deploy to a fight. Basically, we will organize as we fight. This includes adding access to joint capabilities at much lower levels with a more robust network for communications, more joint and specialized personnel, and enhanced training and leader development. These brigade combat teams will be either Infantry, Heavy or Stryker. Additionally, we are creating support brigades in such areas as maneuver enhancement, RSTA, aviation, fires and sustainment. This also sets the stage for the Future Combat Systems equipped future force by implementing now several doctrine, organization, and leader development activities we envision for FCS equipped units. This concept allows the Joint Force Commander greater flexibility to mix and match brigades depending on the operation.

5. The Army is ambitiously reorganizing its war-fighting units. By increasing the number of combat brigades into more mobile, versatile units over the next three years, the Army hopes it will generate about 10 more active component brigades within its current end strength. The Army is restructuring to increase the number of maneuver brigades from the current 33 to between 43 and 48. The 3rd Infantry Division and 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) are at the leading edge of that change. The Army is also immersed in an effort to rebalance 125,000 jobs between the active and Reserve components. We are still working the number of RC conversions The targeted result is 34 fully manned National Guard brigades - about 10 armor, 22 Infantry, a scout brigade and one Stryker brigade. A significant increase in Army capability The Army is ambitiously reorganizing its war-fighting units. By increasing the number of combat brigades into more mobile, versatile units over the next three years, the Army hopes it will generate about 10 more active component brigades within its current end strength. The Army is restructuring to increase the number of maneuver brigades from the current 33 to between 43 and 48. The 3rd Infantry Division and 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) are at the leading edge of that change. The Army is also immersed in an effort to rebalance 125,000 jobs between the active and Reserve components. We are still working the number of RC conversions The targeted result is 34 fully manned National Guard brigades - about 10 armor, 22 Infantry, a scout brigade and one Stryker brigade. A significant increase in Army capability

6. These two examples show the flexibility of the modular Army In the upper example the UEx is tailored for offensive operations in major combat operations and includes the full range of supporting organizations In stability operations a maneuver brigade provides the required security for the support units of action executing critical stability operations. Note that this slide could depict two different UEx at one instant in the campaign, or the same UEx at different phases of the campaign. These two examples show the flexibility of the modular Army In the upper example the UEx is tailored for offensive operations in major combat operations and includes the full range of supporting organizations In stability operations a maneuver brigade provides the required security for the support units of action executing critical stability operations. Note that this slide could depict two different UEx at one instant in the campaign, or the same UEx at different phases of the campaign.

7. This slide illustrates the brigade combat team design. The heavy brigade (on top) and the infantry brigade (on the bottom) are new modular designs. The Stryker brigade design preceded the heavy and infantry designs, and is now serving with distinction in OIF. The subordinate forces are organic to each of the three brigade combat teams, as opposed to tailored. Some important characteristics. Each brigade combat team has an organic reconnaissance squadron, artillery battalion, signal, and UAVs. The heavy and infantry brigades have two organic maneuver battalions, as opposed to the Stryker’s three. The heavy brigade maneuver battalions are combined arms battalions with 2 tank companies and two mech companies.This slide illustrates the brigade combat team design. The heavy brigade (on top) and the infantry brigade (on the bottom) are new modular designs. The Stryker brigade design preceded the heavy and infantry designs, and is now serving with distinction in OIF. The subordinate forces are organic to each of the three brigade combat teams, as opposed to tailored. Some important characteristics. Each brigade combat team has an organic reconnaissance squadron, artillery battalion, signal, and UAVs. The heavy and infantry brigades have two organic maneuver battalions, as opposed to the Stryker’s three. The heavy brigade maneuver battalions are combined arms battalions with 2 tank companies and two mech companies.

8. Army Modularity

9. Heavy Brigade Combat Team 1. Wiring diagram shows HBCT with all organic engineer assets: - 2 organic companies for entire BCT residing within the CABs (76 personnel/CAB) - Embedded staff structures: -BCT Staff (9 personnel): 5ea Engineer Ops – 04x2, 03, E7, E6 4ea GI&S Section – E7, E5, E4, E3 (DTSS-L) -CAB Staffs (2 personnel/CAB): 1ea 03, 1ea E6 in S3 Ops Section -BSTB Staff (4 personnel): 1ea Commander/05; 1ea E6 Ops/Intel NCO; 2ea E3 2. HBCT Summary (gray) shows the engineer totals of subunits, personnel, and major equipment residing within the HBCT. 3. Force XXI/Modular comparison (yellow) shows the ratios of organic sappers within the HBCT versus the old divisional ratio of sappers within a Heavy Division. 4. Engineer capabilities box rates the various engineer capability elements of the HBCT’s organic engineer forces with the Red – Amber – Green system and a blank rating for those capabilities not required by the HBCT. Note that several of these engineer capabilities are not required by the HBCT but would be accomplished by Force-pooled engineers. Also, note that the assault gap crossing/breaching capabilities are red. This capability was taken out of the BCTs as a result of modularity and is another engineer force-pool requirement. 1. Wiring diagram shows HBCT with all organic engineer assets: - 2 organic companies for entire BCT residing within the CABs (76 personnel/CAB) - Embedded staff structures: -BCT Staff (9 personnel): 5ea Engineer Ops – 04x2, 03, E7, E6 4ea GI&S Section – E7, E5, E4, E3 (DTSS-L) -CAB Staffs (2 personnel/CAB): 1ea 03, 1ea E6 in S3 Ops Section -BSTB Staff (4 personnel): 1ea Commander/05; 1ea E6 Ops/Intel NCO; 2ea E3 2. HBCT Summary (gray) shows the engineer totals of subunits, personnel, and major equipment residing within the HBCT. 3. Force XXI/Modular comparison (yellow) shows the ratios of organic sappers within the HBCT versus the old divisional ratio of sappers within a Heavy Division. 4. Engineer capabilities box rates the various engineer capability elements of the HBCT’s organic engineer forces with the Red – Amber – Green system and a blank rating for those capabilities not required by the HBCT. Note that several of these engineer capabilities are not required by the HBCT but would be accomplished by Force-pooled engineers. Also, note that the assault gap crossing/breaching capabilities are red. This capability was taken out of the BCTs as a result of modularity and is another engineer force-pool requirement.

10. Infantry Brigade Combat Team 1. Wiring diagram shows IBCT with all organic engineer assets: - Organic company for entire BCT residing within the BTB (75 personnel) - Embedded staff structures: -BCT Staff (9 personnel): 5ea Engineer Ops – 04x2, 03, E7, E6 4ea GI&S Section – E7, E5, E4, E3 (DTSS-L) -BTB Staff (2 personnel): 1ea Commander/05; 1ea Driver 03 -IN BN Staffs (1 person per Bn): 1ea E6 Ops NCO 2. IBCT Summary (gray) shows the engineer totals of subunits, personnel, and major equipment residing within the IBCT. 3. Force XXI/Modular comparison (yellow) shows the ratios of organic sappers within the IBCT versus the old divisional ratio of sappers within a Light Infantry Division 4. Engineer capabilities box rates the various engineer capability elements of the IBCT’s organic engineer forces with the Red – Amber – Green system and a blank rating for those capabilities not required by the IBCT. Note that several of these engineer capabilities are not required by the IBCT but would be accomplished by Force-pooled engineers. Also, note that the assault gap crossing/breaching capabilities are red. This capability was taken out of the BCTs as a result of modularity and is another engineer force-pool requirement. 1. Wiring diagram shows IBCT with all organic engineer assets: - Organic company for entire BCT residing within the BTB (75 personnel) - Embedded staff structures: -BCT Staff (9 personnel): 5ea Engineer Ops – 04x2, 03, E7, E6 4ea GI&S Section – E7, E5, E4, E3 (DTSS-L) -BTB Staff (2 personnel): 1ea Commander/05; 1ea Driver 03 -IN BN Staffs (1 person per Bn): 1ea E6 Ops NCO 2. IBCT Summary (gray) shows the engineer totals of subunits, personnel, and major equipment residing within the IBCT. 3. Force XXI/Modular comparison (yellow) shows the ratios of organic sappers within the IBCT versus the old divisional ratio of sappers within a Light Infantry Division 4. Engineer capabilities box rates the various engineer capability elements of the IBCT’s organic engineer forces with the Red – Amber – Green system and a blank rating for those capabilities not required by the IBCT. Note that several of these engineer capabilities are not required by the IBCT but would be accomplished by Force-pooled engineers. Also, note that the assault gap crossing/breaching capabilities are red. This capability was taken out of the BCTs as a result of modularity and is another engineer force-pool requirement.

11. Change in the Modular Army HBCT The Modular Force HBCT removed all of it’s Assault Breach and Assault Gap Crossing Capability. With the significant reduction in the number of Armored Combat Earthmovers (M9 ACE) the BCT no longer has an Engineer Survivability Capability, but still retains the mobility capability of its ACE fleet. The mindset was that this capability is not required 100% of the time, thus this capability can be plugged as a “module” when required. The new Mobility Augmentation Company provides this capability back to the force, retaining our combat capability, yet resulting in a net cost savings to our Army. Approximately 500 AVLBs reduced in the Army Inventory = Huge Cost Savings The Modular Force HBCT removed all of it’s Assault Breach and Assault Gap Crossing Capability. With the significant reduction in the number of Armored Combat Earthmovers (M9 ACE) the BCT no longer has an Engineer Survivability Capability, but still retains the mobility capability of its ACE fleet. The mindset was that this capability is not required 100% of the time, thus this capability can be plugged as a “module” when required. The new Mobility Augmentation Company provides this capability back to the force, retaining our combat capability, yet resulting in a net cost savings to our Army. Approximately 500 AVLBs reduced in the Army Inventory = Huge Cost Savings

12. Engineer C2 Change in the Modular Army UEx The Modular Force HBCT removed all of it’s Assault Breach and Assault Gap Crossing Capability. With the significant reduction in the number of Armored Combat Earthmovers (M9 ACE) the BCT no longer has an Engineer Survivability Capability, but still retains the mobility capability of its ACE fleet. The mindset was that this capability is not required 100% of the time, thus this capability can be plugged as a “module” when required. The new Mobility Augmentation Company provides this capability back to the force, retaining our combat capability, yet resulting in a net cost savings to our Army. Approximately 500 AVLBs reduced in the Army Inventory = Huge Cost Savings The Modular Force HBCT removed all of it’s Assault Breach and Assault Gap Crossing Capability. With the significant reduction in the number of Armored Combat Earthmovers (M9 ACE) the BCT no longer has an Engineer Survivability Capability, but still retains the mobility capability of its ACE fleet. The mindset was that this capability is not required 100% of the time, thus this capability can be plugged as a “module” when required. The new Mobility Augmentation Company provides this capability back to the force, retaining our combat capability, yet resulting in a net cost savings to our Army. Approximately 500 AVLBs reduced in the Army Inventory = Huge Cost Savings

14. We reorganized the engineer regiment very methodically. We started by a review of the Joint Functional Concepts and looking at the UJTL Operational and Tactical Tasks. Then, looking at the Maneuver Support Concept and its 7 components we developed Engineer Capability Elements which have evolved into Joint Engineer Capability Elements.We reorganized the engineer regiment very methodically. We started by a review of the Joint Functional Concepts and looking at the UJTL Operational and Tactical Tasks. Then, looking at the Maneuver Support Concept and its 7 components we developed Engineer Capability Elements which have evolved into Joint Engineer Capability Elements.

15. Choosing Where to Focus the Effort We had to ensure that the modular designs we created were providing the capabilities that our maneuver units required. We studied the tasks that a maneuver unit would conduct in various spectrums of conflict and applied it to the Critical Engineer Capability Elements.We had to ensure that the modular designs we created were providing the capabilities that our maneuver units required. We studied the tasks that a maneuver unit would conduct in various spectrums of conflict and applied it to the Critical Engineer Capability Elements.

16. We compiled an enormous database of information collected from lessons learned from OEF/OIF and our CTCs. We wanted to determine what engineer tasks a brigade would be required to execute and what time in an operation, and at what frequency. This information was used to determine what capabilities would be necessary to have as “embedded,” which capabilities would be necessary as baseline modules (required often and early) and which capabilities are required less frequently (mission modules).We compiled an enormous database of information collected from lessons learned from OEF/OIF and our CTCs. We wanted to determine what engineer tasks a brigade would be required to execute and what time in an operation, and at what frequency. This information was used to determine what capabilities would be necessary to have as “embedded,” which capabilities would be necessary as baseline modules (required often and early) and which capabilities are required less frequently (mission modules).

17. Enabling BCTs with Full Spectrum Capability …Task/Capability Analysis Those tasks that were identified as needing to be executed early in an operation and with a high frquency were capabilites that needed to be embedded into the BCTs (Manuever Battalion Sapper Company). Those capabilities that were required to augment the BCT and provide full spectrum capability were designed into Baseline Modules (resulted in 6 Baseline Companies; Sapper, Mobility Augmentation Company, Engineer Support Company, Clearance Company, Horizontal and Vertical). Those engineer capabilities that were more specific and less frequently required were designed into Engineer Mission Modules.Those tasks that were identified as needing to be executed early in an operation and with a high frquency were capabilites that needed to be embedded into the BCTs (Manuever Battalion Sapper Company). Those capabilities that were required to augment the BCT and provide full spectrum capability were designed into Baseline Modules (resulted in 6 Baseline Companies; Sapper, Mobility Augmentation Company, Engineer Support Company, Clearance Company, Horizontal and Vertical). Those engineer capabilities that were more specific and less frequently required were designed into Engineer Mission Modules.

18. Modular Engineer Force Design… …Layered Capability Framework

19. What We’ve Done Complete Regimental Redesign “The Mother of all FDUs” 18 Organizational Designs Modular Bn/Bde C2 w/tailorable engineer modules Revised the Rules of Allocation Based on the New Designs More Work-Load Based, Not Existence Based Revised/Validated Construction Tasks Teamed with Other Proponents, TRADOC, DA G3FM, Center for Army Analysis (CAA) Complete Regimental Redesign: - Considered to be “the Mother of All FDU’s” at the Pentagon. - 18 Organizations - Greatly simplifies the regiment. One standard design for our Brigade Headquarters (vice 6 previous), one stand design for our Battalion Headquarters (vice 12 previous). The combat Heavy battalions (construction) that were large and cumbersome, difficult to deploy, have been broken up into smaller separate organizations that are well fitted to meet the requirements of our Army. - By modularizing our regiment we provide a net cost savings back to the Army. An example is in the Mobility Augmentation Company: The Modular BCT removed all of it’s Assault Breach and Assault Gap Crossing capability, and most of it’s survivability capability. We have designed new modules that are in the Mobility Augmentation Company that will provide this capability to BCTs when they require it. We feel the MSFA 6-11 results provide an adequate number of these companies to our Army, and this also reduces the number of AVLBs in the Army’s inventory by more than 200! The Force XXI Heavy Division had an Engineer Brigade, each with three Engineer Battalions. Each Divisional Engineer Battalion (approx. 415 soldiers) had three Sapper Companies. The Modular Force removed the Divisional Engineer Brigade and Battalions and reduced the number of sappers supporting a BCT from 415 to about 152. After completed the Redesign of the Regiment we then developed Rules of Allocation for use in the Total Army Analysis (TAA) Process. Rules for these new organizations were approved and used in the Recent Modular Support Force Analysis and are also being used in the TAA-13 process. We have also revalidated numerous construction tasks within the TAA Process working very closely with the TRADOC staff and the Center for Army Analysis (CAA). This work will help ensure that the right number and type of engineer organizations are resourced to provide capability to the force. Complete Regimental Redesign: - Considered to be “the Mother of All FDU’s” at the Pentagon. - 18 Organizations - Greatly simplifies the regiment. One standard design for our Brigade Headquarters (vice 6 previous), one stand design for our Battalion Headquarters (vice 12 previous). The combat Heavy battalions (construction) that were large and cumbersome, difficult to deploy, have been broken up into smaller separate organizations that are well fitted to meet the requirements of our Army. - By modularizing our regiment we provide a net cost savings back to the Army. An example is in the Mobility Augmentation Company: The Modular BCT removed all of it’s Assault Breach and Assault Gap Crossing capability, and most of it’s survivability capability. We have designed new modules that are in the Mobility Augmentation Company that will provide this capability to BCTs when they require it. We feel the MSFA 6-11 results provide an adequate number of these companies to our Army, and this also reduces the number of AVLBs in the Army’s inventory by more than 200! The Force XXI Heavy Division had an Engineer Brigade, each with three Engineer Battalions. Each Divisional Engineer Battalion (approx. 415 soldiers) had three Sapper Companies. The Modular Force removed the Divisional Engineer Brigade and Battalions and reduced the number of sappers supporting a BCT from 415 to about 152. After completed the Redesign of the Regiment we then developed Rules of Allocation for use in the Total Army Analysis (TAA) Process. Rules for these new organizations were approved and used in the Recent Modular Support Force Analysis and are also being used in the TAA-13 process. We have also revalidated numerous construction tasks within the TAA Process working very closely with the TRADOC staff and the Center for Army Analysis (CAA). This work will help ensure that the right number and type of engineer organizations are resourced to provide capability to the force.

20. This slide shows the 18 new modular unit designs from the Engineer Regiment’s Force Design Update (FDU). This slide categorizes the 18 new modular designs into three groups: - Command and Control HQ levels with modular augmentation cells - The basic combat company designs - The basic construction company, construction capability elements,and geospatial company designs The bottom line of this slide is to show that with the 18 new modular designs, the current Engineer Regiment did away with 36 existing unit-types. The formation of the new designs did away with redundancies, created more efficient and flexible units, but did not sacrifice capabilities. This slide shows the 18 new modular unit designs from the Engineer Regiment’s Force Design Update (FDU). This slide categorizes the 18 new modular designs into three groups: - Command and Control HQ levels with modular augmentation cells - The basic combat company designs - The basic construction company, construction capability elements,and geospatial company designs The bottom line of this slide is to show that with the 18 new modular designs, the current Engineer Regiment did away with 36 existing unit-types. The formation of the new designs did away with redundancies, created more efficient and flexible units, but did not sacrifice capabilities.

27. How the FEF Supports Mission Tailoring

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