Political Consolidation in Nineteenth-Century Europe and North America
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Political Consolidation in Nineteenth-Century Europe and North America. Introduction. Two crucial developments: Process of political consolidation Made the nation-states strongest in world Industrialization Powerful new industrial economies Society not based primarily on land

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Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Political Consolidation in Nineteenth-Century Europe and North America


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Introduction

  • Two crucial developments:

  • Process of political consolidation

    • Made the nation-states strongest in world

  • Industrialization

    • Powerful new industrial economies

    • Society not based primarily on land

  • Led to unprecedented political, military, and economic influence


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

The Emergence of Nationalism in Europe


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Emergence of Nationalism

  • Single most powerful European political ideology of nineteenth and twentieth centuries

  • Modern concept


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Emergence of Nationalism (cont’d)

  • Nation composed of people joined by bonds of

    • Common language

    • Customs

    • Culture

    • History

  • Should therefore share the same government


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Map 23–1. Languages of Europe


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Meaning of Nationhood

  • Nationalists’ arguments

    • States would promote economic efficiency

    • Nations seen as distinct creations of God

    • Place for their states in divine order of things

  • Polish nationalists portrayed Poland as suffering Christ among nations

  • Main problem: which ethnic groups were “nations”?


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Early Nineteenth-CenturyPolitical Liberalism


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Political Liberalism

  • European liberals ideas came from

    • Enlightenment

    • Examples of English liberties

    • Principles of 1789

  • Called for

    • Legal equality

    • Religious toleration

    • Freedom of the press

    • Limitation on arbitrary power of government


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Female Liberal Political Activism


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Nationalism and Liberalism

  • Liberalism and nationalism often complementary

    • Idea of popular sovereignty

    • Calls for representation and political liberty

  • French Revolution had shown how liberalism could spread across borders

    • Impact on other revolutions around world


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Efforts to Liberalize Early Nineteenth-Century European Political Structures


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Russia

  • Russian troops came into contact with ideas of Enlightenment, French Revolution

    • Came to view Russia as economically backward and politically stifled

  • Decembrist Revolt, 1825

    • Nicholas I (1825–1855)

    • Moscow regiment refused to swear allegiance

    • Nicholas too conservative


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Russia (cont’d)

  • Crushing of liberalism in Russia

    • Scared and shocked Nicholas = reacted harshly

    • Russia becomes policeman of Europe

    • Ready to suppress liberal or national uprisings


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Decembrist Revolt


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

France

  • King Charles X (1824-1830)

    • Saw himself as divine right ruler

    • Liberals won victory in elections of 1830

    • Four Ordinances (press, dissolved Chamber of Deputies; reduced franchise)

    • Rioting in Paris; 1,800 die

    • Abdicated and left France for exile in England


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

France (cont’d)

  • Louis Philippe (1830-1848)

    • Charter (constitution) – rights of the people

    • Censorship abolished

    • Franchise extended

    • Socially a conservative revolution

  • Liberal monarchy showed little sympathy for the lower classes


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Liberty Leading the People


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Britain

  • Great Reform Bill, 1832

    • Exemplary liberal state of the world in nineteenth century

    • Blocked by House of Lords

    • King William IV pressured peers to pass it

  • Catholic Emancipation


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Britain (cont’d)

  • Great Reform Act expanded electorate

    • By 200,000 persons or almost 50%

    • Basis of voting remained property qualification

    • Established foundation of political stability

    • Chartism

  • Second Reform Act,1867


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Gladstone and Disraeli

  • William Gladstone (1809–1898)

    • Prime minister (1868–1874)

    • High point of classical British liberalism

    • Oxford, Cambridge opened to religions

    • Introduction of secret ballot

    • Education Act of 1870 – British government responsible for running elementary schools


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

A House of Commons Debate


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Irish Question

  • Irish nationalists hoped for home rule

    • More Irish control of local government

    • Disruptive force in British politics


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Irish Question (cont’d)

  • Charles Stewart Parnell (1846-1891)

    • Member of Parliament

    • Irish Party decides balance in 1885 between English liberals and conservatives

    • Irish Party backs liberals

    • Failure to pass Home Rule Bill until 1914

    • Even then it was suspended until end of war


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Revolutions of 1848

  • Series of liberal and nationalistic revolutions

  • Liberals appealed to urban working classes

    • Little in common – didn’t work

  • Failure to establish genuinely liberal or national states


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Map 23–2. Centers of Revolution in 1848–1849


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Revolutions of 1848 (cont’d)

  • Chief importance of failed revolutions

    • Emergence of conservative governments

    • Ended era of liberal revolution begun in 1789

    • Accelerated split between nationalism and liberalism


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Testing the New American Republic


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

American Sectional Conflict

  • USA continued republican experiment

    • But threatened by sectional tensions

  • Slavery in South was biggest threat

    • Constitutional Convention of 1788

    • Three-fifths Compromise

    • Spread westward meant that slavery could not be ignored

  • Balance between slave and free states

  • Missouri Compromise, 1820


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

The Excelsior Iron Works


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

North and South

  • Economy of the North

    • Family farms

    • Free labor

    • Commerce

    • Early industrialization


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

North and South (cont’d)

  • Economy of the South

    • Overwhelmingly rural economy

    • Dependent on cotton and slavery

    • Could expand only if slavery expanded as well


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Map 23–3. The United States, 1776–1850


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Slavery in American South

  • Institution of slavery survived for several reasons

    • Economically viable

    • No easy way to abolish it

    • Commitment to protection of private property

    • Racist thinking


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Slavery in American South (cont’d)

  • Slaves regarded as chattel property

    • No recourse to law or constitutional protection

    • Routine beating, sexual exploitation

    • Separation of slave families

  • Slave communities helped preserve family life and inner personalities of the slaves


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Scars of Slavery


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Abolitionist Movement

  • Militant antislavery movement in 1830s

    • Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator

    • Ex-slaves: Frederick Douglas, Sojourner Truth

  • Balance between free and slave states

    • Compromise of 1850

    • Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

    • “Bleeding Kansas”

    • Dred Scott decision, 1857

    • John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

U.S. Civil War (1861-1865)

  • Republican Party opposed slavery

    • Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)

    • South saw his election to presidency as victory for those attacking slavery

  • Confederate troops fired on Fort Sumter

    • Start of most destructive war in U.S. history


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

U.S. Civil War (1861-1865) (cont’d)

  • Emancipation Proclamation, 1863

    • Transformed Northern cause from suppressing a Southern rebellion to that of extending liberty


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Reconstruction

  • South occupied by Northern armies

  • Thirteenth Amendment

    • Freed the slaves

  • Fourteenth Amendment

    • Granted citizenship to former slaves

  • Fifteenth Amendment

    • Granted slaves the right to vote


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Reconstruction (cont’d)

  • Fifteenth Amendment

    • Allowed former slaves to vote

  • Achieving true equality would not be so easy


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Importance of the Civil War

  • Besides TaipingRebellion, US Civil War was the largest war between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and World War I (1914-1918)

  • Establishment of continent-wide free labor market

    • North America open to economic development

    • Free labor would become American norm


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Importance of the Civil War (cont’d)

  • American political and economic interests developed without distraction of debates over states’ rights and morality of slavery


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

The Canadian Experience


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Canadian Experience

  • Treaty of Paris of 1763

    • All of Canada under British control

    • English- and French-speaking populations

    • 30,000 English loyalists fled to Canada

    • Larger English presence, loyal to Crown

  • Constitutional Act of 1791

    • Upper Canada – primarily English

    • Lower Canada – primarily French


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Canadian rail passengers


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Canada’s Road to Self-Government

  • British determined to avoid another revolution

    • Earl of Durham sent to make reforms

    • 1839: Report on the Affairs of British North America

      • Proposed both provinces should be united

      • Durham felt it would lead to thoroughly English culture throughout Canada


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Canada’s Road to Self-Government (cont’d)

  • Canada Act of 1840

  • Same approach later in Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Canada’s Distinctive Culture

  • Canadians exercised self-government

    • Distinctive England and French cultures

  • Fear of American expansionism

    • Move in 1862 to unite Maritime Provinces

  • North American Act of 1867

    • Created a Canadian federation

    • Less emphasis on states’ rights than in U.S.


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Canada’s Distinctive Culture (cont’d)

  • John A. MacDonald (1815-1891)‏

    • In power for most of period from 1867 to 1891

    • Important in shaping new government


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Midcentury PoliticalConsolidation in Europe


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

The Crimean War (1854-1856)

  • Contest over Black Sea peninsula

    • Russian–Ottoman rivalry

    • Nicholas I: obsessed with “Sick Man”

    • Russian drive southward

  • British and French back Ottoman Turks

    • Protected their interests in eastern Mediterranean


Crimean war 1853 1856

Crimean War, 1853-1856


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

The Crimean War (1854-1856) (cont’d)

  • Image of invincible Russia shattered

    • Also shattered power of Concert of Europe to settle international disputes on continent

    • European powers were no longer willing to cooperate to maintain existing borders

    • War correspondents

    • Nursing:

      • Florence Nightingale,

      • Mary Seacole


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

The Crimean War Recalled


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Italian Unification

  • Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872): republican

  • Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882): republican and revolutionary

    • Sought to drive out Austria

  • Count Camillo Cavour (1810-1861)

    • Worked for free trade, railway construction

    • Felt Italy had to prove itself to great powers

    • Backed British and French in Crimean War

  • Victor Emmanuel II proclaimed king, 1861


Italian unification map

Italian Unification map


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)

  • Prussian leader William I (1861-1888)

    • Appointed Bismarck prime minister in 1862

  • Moved against liberal parliament

    • Support of conservative army, bureaucracy

  • Goal of uniting Germany

    • Kleindeutch approach

    • War with Denmark in 1864

    • Austro-Prussian War in 1866


German lands in 1789

German Lands in 1789


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Franco-Prussian War

  • Bismarck looked for opportunity to bring

    • Southern German states into confederation

  • Able to goad France into war

    • Franco-Prussian War

    • Overwhelming German victory

  • German unification – January 28, 1871

    • Power rested in monarchy and army

  • Seemed to prove nationalist goals could be achieved only by armed force


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Creating Nations


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Eastern Europe

  • Age of nationalism, liberalism, industrialism

  • Habsburg empire remained primarily dynastic, absolutist, agrarian

  • Francis Joseph (1848-1916)

    • Tried to impose centralized administration

    • Annoyed Hungarians

  • Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867

    • Creation of dual monarchy


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Unrest

  • Other national groups opposed Compromise

    • Czechs, Poles, Serbo-Croatians, Ruthenians, etc.

    • Resented Austrian and Hungarian dominance


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Unrest (cont’d)

  • Major source of political instability

    • Serbo-Croatians and Poles wanted own states

    • Many nationalities looked to Russia for help

    • Austrian Germans hated non-Germans

  • Nationality problems plagued German, Austrian, and Russian states


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Map 23–6. Nationalities within the Habsburg Empire


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Racial Theory and Anti-Semitism


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Racial Theory

  • Growth of articulated racial theory

    • Explanation for culture and history of groups

  • Arthur de Gobineau (1816-1882)

    • Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races

    • Troubles of Western civilization

    • Long degeneration of original white Aryan race

    • Intermarried with inferior yellow, black races


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Racial Theory (cont’d)

  • Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927)

    • Concept of biological determinism through race

    • Jews obstructed re-generation of the “white race”.


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Anti-Semitism

  • Political and racial anti-Semitism emerged from this atmosphere of racial thought

    • Religious anti-Semitism dated to Middle Ages

  • Since French Revolution, western European Jews

    • Had gained entry into civil life

    • Lived in Britain, France, Austria, and Germany


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Anti-Semitism (cont’d)

  • Anti-Semitism associated Jews with money

    • Finance capitalism changed Europe

    • Bred more hostility toward Jews

    • Most Jews lived in Russia and were poor.


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Birth of Zionism

  • Theodor Herzl (1860-1904)

    • Founder of Zionist movement

    • The Jewish State (1896)

    • Desired to find a homeland for the Jews

    • Initially not focused solely on Palestine


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Theodor Herzl


Political consolidation in nineteenth century europe and north america

Birth of Zionism (cont’d)

  • Originally a combination of

    • A rejection of anti-Semitism

    • A desire to establish some of the ideals of liberalism and socialism in state outside Europe

  • Persistent anti-Semitism in Europe:

    • Pogroms in Russia, 1821, 1859, 1881, 1903-1906

    • Dreyfus Affair in France, 1894-1906


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