Political Consolidation in Nineteenth-Century Europe and North America
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Political Consolidation in Nineteenth-Century Europe and North America. Introduction. Two crucial developments: Process of political consolidation Made the nation-states strongest in world Industrialization Powerful new industrial economies Society not based primarily on land

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Political Consolidation in Nineteenth-Century Europe and North America


Introduction

  • Two crucial developments:

  • Process of political consolidation

    • Made the nation-states strongest in world

  • Industrialization

    • Powerful new industrial economies

    • Society not based primarily on land

  • Led to unprecedented political, military, and economic influence


The Emergence of Nationalism in Europe


Emergence of Nationalism

  • Single most powerful European political ideology of nineteenth and twentieth centuries

  • Modern concept


Emergence of Nationalism (cont’d)

  • Nation composed of people joined by bonds of

    • Common language

    • Customs

    • Culture

    • History

  • Should therefore share the same government


Map 23–1. Languages of Europe


Meaning of Nationhood

  • Nationalists’ arguments

    • States would promote economic efficiency

    • Nations seen as distinct creations of God

    • Place for their states in divine order of things

  • Polish nationalists portrayed Poland as suffering Christ among nations

  • Main problem: which ethnic groups were “nations”?


Early Nineteenth-CenturyPolitical Liberalism


Political Liberalism

  • European liberals ideas came from

    • Enlightenment

    • Examples of English liberties

    • Principles of 1789

  • Called for

    • Legal equality

    • Religious toleration

    • Freedom of the press

    • Limitation on arbitrary power of government


Female Liberal Political Activism


Nationalism and Liberalism

  • Liberalism and nationalism often complementary

    • Idea of popular sovereignty

    • Calls for representation and political liberty

  • French Revolution had shown how liberalism could spread across borders

    • Impact on other revolutions around world


Efforts to Liberalize Early Nineteenth-Century European Political Structures


Russia

  • Russian troops came into contact with ideas of Enlightenment, French Revolution

    • Came to view Russia as economically backward and politically stifled

  • Decembrist Revolt, 1825

    • Nicholas I (1825–1855)

    • Moscow regiment refused to swear allegiance

    • Nicholas too conservative


Russia (cont’d)

  • Crushing of liberalism in Russia

    • Scared and shocked Nicholas = reacted harshly

    • Russia becomes policeman of Europe

    • Ready to suppress liberal or national uprisings


Decembrist Revolt


France

  • King Charles X (1824-1830)

    • Saw himself as divine right ruler

    • Liberals won victory in elections of 1830

    • Four Ordinances (press, dissolved Chamber of Deputies; reduced franchise)

    • Rioting in Paris; 1,800 die

    • Abdicated and left France for exile in England


France (cont’d)

  • Louis Philippe (1830-1848)

    • Charter (constitution) – rights of the people

    • Censorship abolished

    • Franchise extended

    • Socially a conservative revolution

  • Liberal monarchy showed little sympathy for the lower classes


Liberty Leading the People


Britain

  • Great Reform Bill, 1832

    • Exemplary liberal state of the world in nineteenth century

    • Blocked by House of Lords

    • King William IV pressured peers to pass it

  • Catholic Emancipation


Britain (cont’d)

  • Great Reform Act expanded electorate

    • By 200,000 persons or almost 50%

    • Basis of voting remained property qualification

    • Established foundation of political stability

    • Chartism

  • Second Reform Act,1867


Gladstone and Disraeli

  • William Gladstone (1809–1898)

    • Prime minister (1868–1874)

    • High point of classical British liberalism

    • Oxford, Cambridge opened to religions

    • Introduction of secret ballot

    • Education Act of 1870 – British government responsible for running elementary schools


A House of Commons Debate


Irish Question

  • Irish nationalists hoped for home rule

    • More Irish control of local government

    • Disruptive force in British politics


Irish Question (cont’d)

  • Charles Stewart Parnell (1846-1891)

    • Member of Parliament

    • Irish Party decides balance in 1885 between English liberals and conservatives

    • Irish Party backs liberals

    • Failure to pass Home Rule Bill until 1914

    • Even then it was suspended until end of war


Revolutions of 1848

  • Series of liberal and nationalistic revolutions

  • Liberals appealed to urban working classes

    • Little in common – didn’t work

  • Failure to establish genuinely liberal or national states


Map 23–2. Centers of Revolution in 1848–1849


Revolutions of 1848 (cont’d)

  • Chief importance of failed revolutions

    • Emergence of conservative governments

    • Ended era of liberal revolution begun in 1789

    • Accelerated split between nationalism and liberalism


Testing the New American Republic


American Sectional Conflict

  • USA continued republican experiment

    • But threatened by sectional tensions

  • Slavery in South was biggest threat

    • Constitutional Convention of 1788

    • Three-fifths Compromise

    • Spread westward meant that slavery could not be ignored

  • Balance between slave and free states

  • Missouri Compromise, 1820


The Excelsior Iron Works


North and South

  • Economy of the North

    • Family farms

    • Free labor

    • Commerce

    • Early industrialization


North and South (cont’d)

  • Economy of the South

    • Overwhelmingly rural economy

    • Dependent on cotton and slavery

    • Could expand only if slavery expanded as well


Map 23–3. The United States, 1776–1850


Slavery in American South

  • Institution of slavery survived for several reasons

    • Economically viable

    • No easy way to abolish it

    • Commitment to protection of private property

    • Racist thinking


Slavery in American South (cont’d)

  • Slaves regarded as chattel property

    • No recourse to law or constitutional protection

    • Routine beating, sexual exploitation

    • Separation of slave families

  • Slave communities helped preserve family life and inner personalities of the slaves


Scars of Slavery


Abolitionist Movement

  • Militant antislavery movement in 1830s

    • Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator

    • Ex-slaves: Frederick Douglas, Sojourner Truth

  • Balance between free and slave states

    • Compromise of 1850

    • Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

    • “Bleeding Kansas”

    • Dred Scott decision, 1857

    • John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry


U.S. Civil War (1861-1865)

  • Republican Party opposed slavery

    • Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)

    • South saw his election to presidency as victory for those attacking slavery

  • Confederate troops fired on Fort Sumter

    • Start of most destructive war in U.S. history


U.S. Civil War (1861-1865) (cont’d)

  • Emancipation Proclamation, 1863

    • Transformed Northern cause from suppressing a Southern rebellion to that of extending liberty


Reconstruction

  • South occupied by Northern armies

  • Thirteenth Amendment

    • Freed the slaves

  • Fourteenth Amendment

    • Granted citizenship to former slaves

  • Fifteenth Amendment

    • Granted slaves the right to vote


Reconstruction (cont’d)

  • Fifteenth Amendment

    • Allowed former slaves to vote

  • Achieving true equality would not be so easy


Importance of the Civil War

  • Besides TaipingRebellion, US Civil War was the largest war between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and World War I (1914-1918)

  • Establishment of continent-wide free labor market

    • North America open to economic development

    • Free labor would become American norm


Importance of the Civil War (cont’d)

  • American political and economic interests developed without distraction of debates over states’ rights and morality of slavery


The Canadian Experience


Canadian Experience

  • Treaty of Paris of 1763

    • All of Canada under British control

    • English- and French-speaking populations

    • 30,000 English loyalists fled to Canada

    • Larger English presence, loyal to Crown

  • Constitutional Act of 1791

    • Upper Canada – primarily English

    • Lower Canada – primarily French


Canadian rail passengers


Canada’s Road to Self-Government

  • British determined to avoid another revolution

    • Earl of Durham sent to make reforms

    • 1839: Report on the Affairs of British North America

      • Proposed both provinces should be united

      • Durham felt it would lead to thoroughly English culture throughout Canada


Canada’s Road to Self-Government (cont’d)

  • Canada Act of 1840

  • Same approach later in Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa


Canada’s Distinctive Culture

  • Canadians exercised self-government

    • Distinctive England and French cultures

  • Fear of American expansionism

    • Move in 1862 to unite Maritime Provinces

  • North American Act of 1867

    • Created a Canadian federation

    • Less emphasis on states’ rights than in U.S.


Canada’s Distinctive Culture (cont’d)

  • John A. MacDonald (1815-1891)‏

    • In power for most of period from 1867 to 1891

    • Important in shaping new government


Midcentury PoliticalConsolidation in Europe


The Crimean War (1854-1856)

  • Contest over Black Sea peninsula

    • Russian–Ottoman rivalry

    • Nicholas I: obsessed with “Sick Man”

    • Russian drive southward

  • British and French back Ottoman Turks

    • Protected their interests in eastern Mediterranean


Crimean War, 1853-1856


The Crimean War (1854-1856) (cont’d)

  • Image of invincible Russia shattered

    • Also shattered power of Concert of Europe to settle international disputes on continent

    • European powers were no longer willing to cooperate to maintain existing borders

    • War correspondents

    • Nursing:

      • Florence Nightingale,

      • Mary Seacole


The Crimean War Recalled


Italian Unification

  • Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872): republican

  • Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882): republican and revolutionary

    • Sought to drive out Austria

  • Count Camillo Cavour (1810-1861)

    • Worked for free trade, railway construction

    • Felt Italy had to prove itself to great powers

    • Backed British and French in Crimean War

  • Victor Emmanuel II proclaimed king, 1861


Italian Unification map


Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)

  • Prussian leader William I (1861-1888)

    • Appointed Bismarck prime minister in 1862

  • Moved against liberal parliament

    • Support of conservative army, bureaucracy

  • Goal of uniting Germany

    • Kleindeutch approach

    • War with Denmark in 1864

    • Austro-Prussian War in 1866


German Lands in 1789


Franco-Prussian War

  • Bismarck looked for opportunity to bring

    • Southern German states into confederation

  • Able to goad France into war

    • Franco-Prussian War

    • Overwhelming German victory

  • German unification – January 28, 1871

    • Power rested in monarchy and army

  • Seemed to prove nationalist goals could be achieved only by armed force


Creating Nations


Eastern Europe

  • Age of nationalism, liberalism, industrialism

  • Habsburg empire remained primarily dynastic, absolutist, agrarian

  • Francis Joseph (1848-1916)

    • Tried to impose centralized administration

    • Annoyed Hungarians

  • Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867

    • Creation of dual monarchy


Unrest

  • Other national groups opposed Compromise

    • Czechs, Poles, Serbo-Croatians, Ruthenians, etc.

    • Resented Austrian and Hungarian dominance


Unrest (cont’d)

  • Major source of political instability

    • Serbo-Croatians and Poles wanted own states

    • Many nationalities looked to Russia for help

    • Austrian Germans hated non-Germans

  • Nationality problems plagued German, Austrian, and Russian states


Map 23–6. Nationalities within the Habsburg Empire


Racial Theory and Anti-Semitism


Racial Theory

  • Growth of articulated racial theory

    • Explanation for culture and history of groups

  • Arthur de Gobineau (1816-1882)

    • Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races

    • Troubles of Western civilization

    • Long degeneration of original white Aryan race

    • Intermarried with inferior yellow, black races


Racial Theory (cont’d)

  • Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927)

    • Concept of biological determinism through race

    • Jews obstructed re-generation of the “white race”.


Anti-Semitism

  • Political and racial anti-Semitism emerged from this atmosphere of racial thought

    • Religious anti-Semitism dated to Middle Ages

  • Since French Revolution, western European Jews

    • Had gained entry into civil life

    • Lived in Britain, France, Austria, and Germany


Anti-Semitism (cont’d)

  • Anti-Semitism associated Jews with money

    • Finance capitalism changed Europe

    • Bred more hostility toward Jews

    • Most Jews lived in Russia and were poor.


Birth of Zionism

  • Theodor Herzl (1860-1904)

    • Founder of Zionist movement

    • The Jewish State (1896)

    • Desired to find a homeland for the Jews

    • Initially not focused solely on Palestine


Theodor Herzl


Birth of Zionism (cont’d)

  • Originally a combination of

    • A rejection of anti-Semitism

    • A desire to establish some of the ideals of liberalism and socialism in state outside Europe

  • Persistent anti-Semitism in Europe:

    • Pogroms in Russia, 1821, 1859, 1881, 1903-1906

    • Dreyfus Affair in France, 1894-1906


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