What s the risk a look at the new auditing standards and how they will affect you
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What’s the Risk?!?! A Look at the New Auditing Standards and How they will Affect You……. Kim Higgins, Partner Gordon, Hughes & Banks, LLP 2008. New SAS’s by number. SAS No. 103, Audit Documentation (December, 2005)

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What s the risk a look at the new auditing standards and how they will affect you

What’s the Risk?!?! A Look at the New Auditing Standards and How they will Affect You……

Kim Higgins, Partner

Gordon, Hughes & Banks, LLP

2008


New sas s by number

New SAS’s by number

  • SAS No. 103, Audit Documentation (December, 2005)

  • SAS No. 104, Amendment to Statement on Auditing Standards No. 1, Codification of Auditing Standards and Procedures (“Due Professional Care in the Performance of Work”) (February, 2006)

  • SAS No. 105, Amendment to Statement on Auditing Standards No. 95, Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (February, 2006)

  • SAS No. 106, Audit Evidence (February, 2006)

  • SAS No. 107, Audit Risk and Materiality in Conducting an Audit (February, 2006)


New sass continued

New SASs (Continued)

  • SAS No. 108, Planning and Supervision (February, 2006)

  • SAS No. 109, Understanding the Entity and Its Environment and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement (February, 2006)

  • SAS No. 110, Performing Audit Procedures in Response to Assessed Risks and Evaluating the Audit Evidence Obtained (February, 2006)

  • SAS No. 111, Amendment to Statementon Auditing Standards No. 39, Audit Sampling (Feb, 2006)

  • SAS No. 112, Communicating Internal Control Related Matters Identified in an Audit (May, 2006)


Which sass affect me

Which SASs Affect Me?

  • SAS No. 103, Audit Documentation (December, 2005)

  • SAS No. 109, Understanding the Entity and Its Environment and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement (February, 2006)

  • SAS No. 112, Communicating Internal Control Related Matters Identified in an Audit (May, 2006)


Managements responsibilities

Managements’ Responsibilities

  • Financial Statements are representations by management

  • Each representation involves managements’ assertions:

    • Existence

    • Rights and Obligations

    • Completeness

    • Valuation and Allocation


Auditor s role

Auditor’s Role

  • Provide users of f/s with reasonable assurance that f/s can be relied upon for decision making.

  • Obtain audit evidence to support the opinion on whether f/s are, in fact, free of material misstatements.


What affects me

What Affects Me?

  • SAS 103 and 112 – effective in 2006 audits

  • SAS 109 – effective in 2007 audits


What does sas 109 say

What does SAS 109 say?

  • Documentation of the environment in which the entity operates-not just I/Cs

  • More testing of controls is inevitable to do this.

  • Must Assess and Document:

    • Risk of Material misstatement from

      • F/S as a whole

      • Assertions applicable to f/s items


Sas 109 breaks down into two parts

SAS 109 Breaks down into two parts

  • Understanding the Entity and its Environment

  • Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement


Understanding the entity

Understanding the Entity

a.Industry, regulatory, and other external factors

b. Nature of the entity

c. Objectives and strategies and the related business risks that may result in a material misstatement of the financial statements

d. Measurement and review of the entity's financial performance

e. Internal control, which includes the selection and application of accounting policies


Entity level controls

Entity-level controls

  • Information to be gathered for all audits

    • Five COSO elements

    • Anti-fraud controls

    • General IT controls

    • General financial level controls


Activity level controls

Activity-level controls

  • Concepts parallel to entity-level controls

    • COSO elements

    • Anti-fraud controls

  • Assertion-level controls also must be analyzed

  • Auditor must focus on “significant controls” that might have major impact on financial statements

  • Must do same for significant transactions classes and significant G/L account groups, if different


Default to maximum control risk

Default to maximum control risk?

  • “Default” to maximum control risk no longer allowed

  • Auditor must obtain evidence and have (and document) a basis for control risk at any level


Impact of information technology

Impact of information technology

  • Emphasis on IT analysis now significant part of audit work

  • Why? Computer technology impacts internal control since most accounting systems are computer based

  • Off the shelf accounting applications have many built in controls and are, de facto, more effective

  • Spreadsheets have very few controls and can be easily misused and misleading (i.e. require extra testing?)


It controls

IT controls

  • Focus on general and application controls where IT used in accounting system

  • Access controls are the most important controls

  • Mapping of interface between applications and manual elements of accounting system must be documented to some degree in order to show understanding by auditor

  • Use of IT specialists increasingly likely as client IT use gets more complex


Risks that it systems pose to internal control

Risks that IT systems pose to internal control

  • Reliance on systems or programs that are incorrectly processing data, processing inaccurate data, or both.

  • Unauthorized access to data resulting in destruction or improper changes to data.

  • Unauthorized changes to data in master files.

  • Unauthorized changes to systems or programs.

  • Failure to make necessary changes to systems or programs.

  • Inappropriate manual intervention.

  • Loss or destruction of data or inability to access data as required.


Coso model

COSO model

  • There is a direct relationship between an entity’s objectives and the internal control components it implements to provide reasonable assurance about their achievement.

  • In addition, internal control is relevant to the entire entity, or to any of its operating units or business functions.


Controls relevant to reliable financial reporting and to the audit

Controls Relevant to Reliable Financial Reporting and to the Audit


Five components of internal control

Five Components of Internal Control

a. Control environment

b. Risk assessment

c. Information and communication

d. Control activities

e. Monitoring


Other considerations

Other considerations

  • Materiality.

  • The size of the entity.

  • The nature of the entity’s business, including its organization and ownership characteristics.

  • The diversity and complexity of the entity’s operations.

  • Applicable legal and regulatory requirements.

  • The nature and complexity of the systems that are part of the entity’s internal control, including the use of service organizations.


Control environment

Control Environment

Control environment sets the tone of an organization, influencing the control consciousness of its people. It is the foundation for all other components of internal control, providing discipline and structure.


Control environment1

Control environment

a.Communication and enforcement of integrity and ethical values.

b.Commitment to competence.

c.Participation of those charged with governance.

d.Management's philosophy and operating style.

e.Organizational structure.

f.Assignment of authority and responsibility.

g.Human resource policies and practices.


Risk assessment

Risk Assessment

Risk assessment is the entity’s identification and analysis of relevant risks to achievement of its objectives, forming a basis for determining how the risks should be managed.


Risk assessment1

Risk assessment

  • Changes in operating environment

  • New personnel

  • New or revamped information systems

  • Rapid growth

  • New technology

  • New business models, products, or activities

  • Corporate restructurings

  • Expanded foreign operations

  • New accounting pronouncements


Information and communication

Information and Communication

Information and communication systems support the identification, capture, and exchange of information in a form and time frame that enable people to carry out their responsibilities.


Information and communication1

Information and communication

  • The classes of transactions in the entity's operations that are significant to the financial statements.

  • The procedures, within both automated and manual systems, by which those transactions are initiated, authorized, recorded, processed, and reported in the financial statements.

  • The related accounting records, whether electronic or manual, supporting information, and specific accounts in the financial statements involved in initiating, authorizing, recording, processing, and reporting transactions.

  • How the information system captures events and conditions, other than classes of transactions, that are significant to the financial statements.

  • The financial reporting process used to prepare the entity's financial statements, including significant accounting estimates and disclosures.


Control activities

Control Activities

Control activities are the policies and procedures that help ensure that management directives are carried out.


Control activities1

Control activities

  • Authorization. Control activities related to the initiation of derivatives and other off-balance sheet transactions may be relevant to the auditor’s design of audit procedures related to the completeness assertion.

  • Segregation of duties. Whether the personnel responsible for recording estimates for uncollectible accounts receivables are independent of personnel authorizing sales transactions may be relevant to the auditor’s design of audit procedures related to the valuation assertion.

  • Safeguarding. Control activities related to whether inventory is securely stored and the movement and access to inventory is limited to authorized individuals may be relevant to the auditor’s design of audit procedures related to the existence assertion, in particular, the auditor’s consideration as to the number of locations to visit.

  • Asset accountability. Control activities related to reconciliations of the detailed records to the general ledger are ordinarily necessary to design and perform audit procedures for material classes of transactions and account balances.


Monitoring

Monitoring

  • Monitoringis a process that assesses the quality of internal control performance over time.


Monitoring1

Monitoring

  • major types of activities that the entity uses to monitor internal control over financial reporting, including the sources of the information related to those activities, and how those activities are used to initiate corrective actions to its controls


Documentation of company internal control

Documentation of company internal control?

  • Under COSO, documentation is company responsibility and auditor cannot be integral part of internal control

  • Lack of company documentation may constitute a control deficiency

  • Lack of company documentation may limit auditor’s ability to inspect evidence regarding the design of internal controls

    • In turn, auditor must perform ‘alternative’ procedures and increase hours?

    • Reminder: Design and implementation must be testable by auditor


Assessing the risks of material misstatement

Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement

  • Identify risks throughout the process of obtaining an understanding of the entity and its environment, including relevant controls that relate to the risks, and considering the classes of transactions, account balances, and disclosures in the financial statements.

  • Relate the identified risks to what can go wrong at the relevant assertion level.

  • Consider whether the risks are of a magnitude that could result in a material misstatement of the financial statements.

  • Consider the likelihood that the risks could result in a material misstatement of the financial statements.


Significant risks that require special audit consideration

Significant Risks That Require Special Audit Consideration

  • Whether the risk is a risk of fraud

  • Whether the risk is related to recent significant economic, accounting, or other developments and, therefore, requires specific attention

  • The complexity of transactions

  • Whether the risk involves significant transactions with related parties

  • The degree of subjectivity in the measurement of financial information related to the risks, especially those involving a wide range of measurement uncertainty

  • Whether the risk involves significant nonroutine transactions that are outside the normal course of business for the entity, or that otherwise appear to be unusual


Questions or comments

Questions or Comments

  • What’s the Risk?


Thank you for your kind consideration

Thank you for your kind consideration

  • Enjoy the rest of your day!


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