Application to heavy rainfall
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Application to Heavy Rainfall. 9 th THORPEX GIFS-TIGGE Working Group meeting Geneva, WMO Headquarters 31 August – 2 September, 2011. 経田 正幸 KYOUDA Masayuki Numerical Prediction Division, Japan Meteorological Agency. Contents. Information for severe weather preparation at JMA

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Application to Heavy Rainfall

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Application to heavy rainfall

Application to Heavy Rainfall

9th THORPEX GIFS-TIGGE Working Group meeting

Geneva, WMO Headquarters

31 August – 2 September, 2011

経田 正幸

KYOUDA Masayuki

Numerical Prediction Division,

Japan Meteorological Agency


Contents

Contents

  • Information for severe weather preparation at JMA

    • Early warning information

    • EPS product

  • TC-related heavy rainfall

    • Case study – Typhoon Fitow (T0709)

  • Model output and its calibration

    • Calibrated precipitation

    • Calibration method

  • Conclusion and suggestion

2


Information for severe weather preparation at jma

Information for Severe Weather Preparation at JMA


Information for severe weather preparation

Information for Severe Weather Preparation

  • Warning, advisory and bulletin services for severe weather

    • If hazardous weather conditions are expected, JMA delivers a variety of plain messages including warnings, advisories and bulletins to the general public and disaster prevention authorities so that appropriate measures can be taken to mitigate possible hazards.

    • Bulletins provide information to supplement warnings and advisories.

  • Early warning information

    • Five-day track forecast in Typhoon bulletins

      http://www.jma.go.jp/en/typh/typh5.html

    • Storm, heavy rain, and high waves for the next few days in bulletin services

    • Extreme weather as a kind of seasonal forecast

      Issued every Tuesday and Friday when a high probability (30% or more) of very high or very low seven-day averaged temperature is predicted in the week starting from five to eight days ahead of the date of announcement

      http://www.jma.go.jp/en/soukei/

4


Eps product for early warning information

EPS product for early warning information

  • Guidance for early warning information

    • Currently based on JMA EPS

      • It is important to update on schedule.

      • Our own EPS product is easy to work especially for operational use.

    • Limited use of Multi-center/TIGGE products

      • Others’ EPS/NWPS outputs are used for reference.

      • Multi-center’s and ECMWF-EPS’s track are used in TC warning process.

      • Ensemble TC tracks are available at the Numerical Typhoon Prediction Web site operated by RSMC Tokyo – Typhoon Center in JMA.

  • EPS plan in the near future and the next

    • Expected in step with forecast operation’s plan

      • To increase the resolution of the both EPSs’ model from TL319L60 to TL479L100

      • To conduct One-week EPS from once a day to twice a day although the forecast ensemble size is reduced by about half

      • To increase the ensemble size of Typhoon EPS from 11 to 25

      • To extend the forecast range of One-week EPS up to two weeks

      • To introduce “Reforecasting”

5


Jma numerical typhoon prediction web site for the nmhss of escap wmo typhoon committee members

JMA Numerical Typhoon Prediction Web site- for the NMHSs of ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee Members -

  • Ensemble TC tracks are available on the Numerical Typhoon Prediction Web site.

    • Multi-center TC tracks

    • TC tracks derived from Typhoon EPS


Update cycle now and in the future

Update cycle, now and in the future

6-hourly update products up to 132 hours ahead

Plan to increase the ensemble size up to 25

12UTC

18UTC

00UTC

06UTC

12UTC

Daily update products

up to 9 days ahead

Plan to conduct the EPS twice a day although the ensemble size is cut

New and timely EPS products are now available in TC warning process.


Tc related heavy rainfall

TC-related Heavy Rainfall


Case study typhoon fitow t0709

Case study - Typhoon Fitow (T0709)

Typhoon Fitow made landfall in Honshu, the main island of Japan, at about 15UTC on 6th September.

Weather Chart :

at 00 UTC on 6th September

Black solid line : Observed track

9


Heavy rainfall associated with typhoon fitow

Heavy rainfall associated with Typhoon Fitow

烏川

入間川

荒川

多摩川

相模川

Redand blue lines represent to issue flood warning and no warning, respectively.

3-day accumulated precipitation

683mm

651mm

The 3-day accumulated rainfall in mountain region located in the western part of Tokyo exceeded 500 mm and the water level of the Tama River running through Tokyo Metropolitan area exceeded dangerous level.

690mm

10


Typhoon track forecasts of typhoon fitow before recurvature

Typhoon track forecasts of Typhoon Fitow before recurvature

The landfall probability on Japan depended on the timing of recurvature.

Ensemble forecast

up to 9 days ahead

3-Day Track Forecast

in Typhoon Bulletins

at 00UTC

on 3 September

6日09時予報円

9月1日09時

2日09時

5日09時予報円

3日09時

4日09時予報円

Initial time is 12UTC 2 September.

11


Plume diagram for an upriver district

Plume diagram for an upriver district

Initial time is 12UTC 2 September.

In order to explore the use of medium-range NWP output to TC forecasting, it is essential to have an accurate grasp of forecast uncertainties of high-impact weather events controlled by the Typhoon motion, especially whether or not Typhoon will approach.

12


Worst case scenario 1

Worst-case scenario (1)

Initial time is 12UTC 2 September.

Representative track up to 6 days ahead

Western track

with landfall

13


Worst case scenario 2

Worst-case scenario (2)

Initial time is 12UTC 3 September.

Representative track up to 5 days ahead

Western track

with landfall

14


Model output and its calibration

Model Output and Its Calibration


Model output and its calibration1

Model output and its calibration

  • Operational global EPS/NWP model

    • Not easy to predict precious amounts or even the order of strong rainfalls

      • Underestimation of orographic rainfall (ex. Fitow)

  • Statistical post-processing

    • employed routinely to reduce the systematic errors of JMA NWP model

      • Calibration is essential to detect whether the forecasted rainfall amount exceeds warning level or not, although the observed data are limited.

16


Typhoon ma on bringing heavy rainfall

Typhoon Ma-on bringing heavy rainfall

Ensemble TC track up to 4 days ahead

One-day rainfall amount

Based on rain gauge data during19th July 2011

Initial time is 12UTC 18 July 2011.

In Umaji Village of Kochi Prefecture, 851.5 mm of rainfall fell on 19th July (local time), ranking high in Japan’s one-day precipitation.

The analyzed TC central pressure was 980 hPa and an analyzed maximum wind speed near TC center was 80 kt.

17


Calibrated precipitation

Calibrated precipitation

Raw data (control run of EPS)

Calibrated data

Three-hour accumulated rainfall from 21UTC 18th July 2011

Underestimation of antecedent rainfall amount over the mountain regions was calibrated due to orographic effect.

Observed gridded data used in the calibration

18


Calibration method

Calibration method

  • Kalman filter

    • The predictand is “Radar/Raingauge-Analyzed Precipitation” data which are covered with the Japanese Islands and its surrounding sea area.

    • The KF output has a tendency of lower frequency of forecasting severe weather events,

  • such as heavy rainfall, than the

  • actual.

  • Frequency bias correction

    • The scheme is applied to compensate the frequency bias of the KF output.

Frequency bias correction forcing

Blue : EPS model output

Red : Rain gauge

Cumulative frequency distribution of 7-day accumulated precipitation at Tokyo for July 2002 to June 2003

19


Conclusion and suggestion

Conclusion and suggestion

  • JMA makes some guidance based on its own operational EPS in the early warning operation.

    • The use and development of Multi-center/TIGGE products are limited, but Multi-center’s track are used in TC warning process.

    • Heavy rainfall forecasting associated with TC is strongly depend on the uncertainty of the TC motion.

    • Statistical post-processing is useful to reduce the systematic errors in the operational global EPS model to heavy rainfall.

  • To exchange gridded data for ensemble precipitation is expected in the TIGGE-FDP activity.

    • The rule of its exchange should be clear.

20


Application to heavy rainfall

Thank you for your kind attention.


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