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Consumer Behavior. Consumer Behavior. Buyer Behavior process by which consumers and organizational buyers make purchase decisions broad term that applies to both: ultimate consumer organizational buyers Consumer Behavior buyer behavior of ultimate consumers. Consumer Behavior.

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consumer behavior1
Consumer Behavior
  • Buyer Behavior
    • process by which consumers and organizational buyers make purchase decisions
    • broad term that applies to both:
      • ultimate consumer
      • organizational buyers
  • Consumer Behavior
    • buyer behavior of ultimate consumers
consumer behavior2
Consumer Behavior
  • Understanding human behavior in purchase/nonpurchase situations
  • “Borrows” from psychology and sociology Lewin’s General Model of Behavior
    • predicts that understanding consumer behavior requires understanding of:
      • individual’s psychological makeup
      • influences of others on the individual
consumer behavior3
Consumer Behavior
  • Lewin’s General Model of Behavior (cont)
    • model offers a convenient classification of buying behavior influences
    • B = f (P,E), where:
      • behavior (B) is a
      • function (f) of interactions of
      • personal influences (P), and the pressures exerted by
      • environmental forces (E)
consumer behavior4
Consumer Behavior
  • Lewin’s Model Applied to Consumer Behavior
    • B = f (I,P)
      • B is a function of:
      • interpersonal determinants (I), and
        • reference groups
        • culture
      • personal determinants (P)
        • attitudes
        • learning
        • perception
interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • Cultural Influences
    • Culture
      • values
      • beliefs
      • preferences
      • tastes
        • handed down from one generation to the next
    • Basic core values slow to change; but do change over time
interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior1
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • Cultural Influences (cont)
    • Subcultures - numerous subgroupings with their own distinguishing modes of behavior
      • based on factors such as:
        • race
        • nationality
        • age
        • rural vs. urban
        • sex
        • religion
        • geographical distribution
interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior2
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • Cultural Influences (cont)
    • African American consumers
      • growing market
      • group’s most distinguishing feature is self-description as bargain hunters
      • group shops more frequently than other groups
    • Hispanic consumers
      • heterogeneous in their national heritage cultural norms
      • consistent tendency to be brand loyal, conservative buyers, family-oriented
interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior3
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • Cultural Influences (cont)
    • Asian American consumers
      • very culturally diverse
      • almost two dozen different Asian language groups represented in U.S. (+ several dialects)
      • subgroups differ depending on their level of acculturation
interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior4
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • Social Influences
    • Includes all influences resulting from both formal and informal group memberships, other than the family
    • From group memberships, individuals receive:
      • norms
      • status
      • roles
interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior5
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • Norms
    • values
    • attitudes
    • behaviors
      • that the group deems appropriate for its members
  • Status
    • each person’s relative position in a group
  • Roles
    • what members of the group expect from the individual
interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior6
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • Asch Phenomenon
    • research project that demonstrated the impact groups and group norms have on an individual’s behavior
  • Reference Groups
    • those groups whose value structures and standards influence a person’s behavior
    • a person need not be an actual member of a reference group to be influenced by it
interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior7
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • Reference Groups
    • Two conditions necessary for strong influence by a group on a member’s purchase:
      • purchased product must be one that others can see and identify
      • purchased product must be conspicuous, a brand or product not everybody owns
interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior8
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • Social Class Membership
    • can affect both lifestyle and purchasing behavior
    • extent has not been fully determined
    • Lloyd Warner developed six-class system
      • social structures of small and large cities
        • Upper-upper Lower-upper
        • Upper-middle Lower-middle
        • Working class Lower class
interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior9
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • Social Class
    • Opinion leaders (influencials, trendsetters) serve as information sources about acceptance of new products and services
    • present in almost any group
    • “gatekeepers”
interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior10
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • Family Influences
    • characterized by close, continuing interactions among family members
    • family often represents strongest source of group influence
    • family has set of norms, roles, status
    • four role categories in family decision-making
      • autonomic husband-dominant
      • wife-dominant syncratic
interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior11
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • Family Influences (cont)
    • role of young children in purchasing decisions is changing
    • children influence parents to buy:
      • toys clothing
      • cereals homes (?) vacations (?)
    • teenagers, in many cases, have become household purchasing agents in their families
personal determinants of consumer behavior
Personal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
  • Needs and Motives
  • Perceptions
  • Attitudes
  • Self-Concept
needs and motives
Needs and Motives
  • Need
    • a lack of something useful
    • imbalance between actual and desired state
      • a need must be sufficiently aroused before it can serve as a motive to buy something
  • Motive
    • inner state that directs a person toward the goal of satisfying a felt need
    • person takes action to reduce tension and regain equilibrium
needs and motives1
Needs and Motives
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Physiological
      • food, shelter, clothing
    • Safety/belonging
      • protection from physical harm, need for security, avoidance of the unexpected
    • Social
      • being accepted by family and other group
needs and motives2
Needs and Motives
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (cont)
    • Esteem
      • desire to feel a sense of accomplishment, achievement, and respect from others
    • Self-actualization
      • desire to feel fulfilled, to realize one’s own potential, to fully use one’s talents and capabilities
perceptions
Perceptions
  • The meaning each person attributes to incoming stimuli through the five senses
  • Occurrence of perception determined by interaction of two types of factors:
    • stimulus factors
      • characteristics of the physical object
    • individual factors
      • characteristics of the person receiving the incoming stimuli
perceptions1
Perceptions
  • Selective Perception
    • too many incoming stimuli for individual to react to all
    • most are filtered by individual’s perceptual screens
    • only interesting, unusual, and/or problem-solving stimuli will be consciously perceived
perceptions2
Perceptions
  • Closure
    • person’s tendency to produce a complete picture
    • many successful advertisements utilize this characteristic
  • Subliminal Perceptions
    • research shows that subliminal messages cannot force receivers to buy goods they would not consciously want
attitudes
Attitudes
  • A person’s enduring favorable or unfavorable
    • evaluations
    • emotional feelings
    • actions
      • toward some object or idea
attitudes1
Attitudes
  • Three components of attitude:
    • cognitive
      • individual’s information or knowledge about an object or concept
    • affective
      • feelings or emotional reactions
    • behavioral
      • tendencies to act or to behave in a certain manner
attitudes2
Attitudes
  • Attitude changes come from:
    • cognitive
      • introduction of new information
    • affective
      • relating the use of the new good or service to desirable consequences for the user
    • behavioral
      • inducing the person to engage in attitude-discrepant behavior by giving free samples
learning theory and self concept
Learning Theory and Self-Concept
  • Learning
    • changes in behavior, immediate or expected, as a result of experience
  • Components of the learning process:
    • drives
      • strong stimuli that impel action
    • cues
      • objects that determine nature of response to drive
    • reinforcement (reward)
      • Reduction in drive that results from proper response
learning theory and self concept1
Learning Theory and Self-Concept
  • Learning theory is applied to marketing through the shaping process
  • shaping process
    • process of applying a series of rewards and reinforcements to permit more complex behaviors to evolve over time
    • example: use of discount coupons
self concept
Self-Concept
  • Components
    • real self
      • you as you really are; objective view
    • self-image
      • the way you see yourself
    • ideal self
      • the way you would like to look
    • looking-glass self
      • the way you think others see you
self concept1
Self-Concept
  • Individuals make decisions and buy products they feel will move them towards their ideal self-image
the consumer decision process
The Consumer Decision Process
  • Problem recognition
    • result of consumer awareness of a discrepancy between existing state of affairs and desired state
    • may result from:
      • routine depletion of individual’s stock of products
      • consumer’s possession of inadequate assortment of products; changed financial status
      • dissatisfaction with present brand or product type
      • boredom with current products; desire for novelty
the consumer decision process1
The Consumer Decision Process
  • Search
    • gathering of information related to the attainment of a desired state
  • Internal Search
    • mental review of stored information relevant to the problem situation
  • External Search
    • gathering of information from outside sources by consumer engaged in the research process
the consumer decision process2
The Consumer Decision Process
  • Evoked Set
    • number of brands a consumer actually considers in making a purchase decision
  • Evaluation of Alternatives/Purchase Act
    • involves evaluative criteria
    • purchase decision and purchase act are end results of the search and alternative evaluation stages of decision process
the consumer decision process3
The Consumer Decision Process
  • Postpurchase Evaluation
    • deals with consumer satisfaction with purchase
    • common for consumer to experience postpurchase anxieties in certain instances
    • Festinger - postpurchase doubt = cognitive dissonance
      • psychologically unpleasant state that occurs when an imbalance exists among a person’s cognitions (knowledge, beliefs, attitudes)
the consumer decision process4
The Consumer Decision Process
  • Cognitive Dissonance
    • more likely to occur where:
      • dollar value of purchase is high
      • rejected alternatives have desirable features not present in chosen alternative
      • decision is major one
the consumer decision process5
The Consumer Decision Process
  • Reduction of Cognitive Dissonance
    • seek out advertisements and other information supporting the chosen alternative
    • seek reassurance from other satisfied customers
    • avoid information favorable to the unchosen alternatives
    • consumer can change opinions
    • marketeers can provide informational support to reduce dissonance
consumer problem solving processes
Consumer Problem-Solving Processes
  • Routinized response behavior
    • speed buy
    • made based on brand preference; selection from limited group of brands
  • Limited problem-solving
    • situation where evaluative criteria are set, but a new brand is encountered
  • Extended problem-solving
    • brand is difficult to categorize or evaluate; requires considerable external search
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