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Physical Science. Unit 1: Introduction Chapter 1. What is Science. Science is a system of knowledge and the methods you use to find that knowledge . Science begins with curiosity and often ends with discovery. What is Science?.

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physical science

Physical Science

Unit 1:

Introduction

Chapter 1

what is science
What is Science
  • Science is a system of knowledge and the methods you use to find that knowledge.
  • Science begins with curiosityand often ends with discovery.
what is science1
What is Science?
  • Generally scientists believe that the universe can be described by basic rules and these rules can be discovered by careful, methodical study.
science vs technology
Science vs. Technology

Technology – the application of

science

Science and technology are interdependent. Advances in one lead to advances in the other

branches of science
Branches of Science

Chemistry: The study of Matter and its changes

Physics: The study of Forces and Energy

what is the scientific method
What is the Scientific Method?
  • Scientific method refers to the techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge
  • It’s an organized plan for gathering, organizing, and communicating information.
  • Everyone can use the scientific method
  • The goal of any scientific method is to solve a problem or to better understand an observed event
how science is conducted
How Science is conducted
  • Science is an investigation, which starts with observations leading to inferences.
    • An observation is any information collected with the senses.
    • An inference is conclusions or deductions based on observations.
practice
Practice
  • Observations:
    • I hear people screaming
    • I smell cotton candy, popcorn, and hamburgers
    • I see a lot of people
  • Inference = ?
basic steps of scientific method
Basic steps of scientific method
  • Make an observation
  • Ask a question
  • Form a hypothesis
  • Test hypothesis
  • Analyze data/draw conclusion
  • Develop theory
scientific method steps 1 3
Scientific Method Steps 1-3
  • Begins with an observation

(ex. I see smoke in the distance)

2. that leads to a question.

(ex. what’s causing the smoke)

3. Form a hypothesis – a possible answer that you can test.

(ex. Some one is burning leaves.)

scientific method step 4
Scientific Method Step 4
  • A good experiment tests only one variable at a time.
  • No experiment is a failure.

Conduct an

Experiment

variables
Variables

Variable – anything that can change in an experiment

  • Independent variable – what you change. (manipulated)
  • Dependent variable – what changes because of the independent variable. (responding)
  • Control-what you keep the same
qualitative vs quantitative
Qualitative vs Quantitative
  • Qualitative – describes with words.
  • Quantitative – describe with measurements
scientific method step 5
Scientific Method Step 5
  • Data DOES NOT support hypothesis then you need to revise the hypothesis and retest
  • Data supports hypothesis than additional testing is needed before developing a theory

Analyze data

scientific method step 6
Scientific Method Step 6
  • Is an explanation that has been tested by repeated observations.
  • Are always being

questioned and examined.

  • To be valid, a theory must continue to pass each test.

Scientific Theory

scientific theory cont
Scientific Theory (cont.)
  • A theory must explain observations simply and clearly.
  • Experiments that illustrate the theory must be repeatable.
  • You must be able to predict from the theory
scientific method step 6 cont
Scientific Method Step 6 cont
  • States a repeated observation about nature.
  • Does not explain why an event happens.

Scientific Law

theories and laws are not absolute
Theories and Laws are not absolute
  • Sometimes theories or Laws have to be changed or replaced completely when new discoveries are made.
scientific model
Scientific Model
  • Model is an representation of an object or event.
  • Scientific models make it easier to understand things that might be too difficult to observe directly
graphs
Graphs
  • A way of organizing and presenting data.
  • Makes relationships more evident.
line graphs
Line graphs
  • Best for displaying data that change. (anything over time)
  • Numerical vs.

Numerical.

multiple line graphs
Multiple Line Graphs
  • Best for comparing multiple values and distributions
bar graphs
Bar Graphs
  • Best when comparing data for several individual items or events.
  • Numerical vs. non-numerical
circle graphs pie charts
Circle Graphs (pie charts)
  • Best for displaying data that are parts of a whole.
scientific notation
Scientific Notation
  • When writing very large or very small numbers, scientists use a kind of shorthand called scientific notation.
  • This is a way of writing a number without so many zeros.
examples
Examples:
  • The speed of light is about

300,000,000 m/s

    • Or 3.0 x 108
  • The mass of a proton is

0.000000000000000000000001673

    • Or 1.673 X 10-24
all you do is move the decimal
All you do is move the decimal
  • 850,000,000.0

8 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0

= 8.5 x 108

  • 0.000,000,025

0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5

= 2.5 x 10-8

+

-

scientific notation examples
Scientific Notation Examples
  • 3.256 x 104
  • 9.78 x 109
  • 5.24 x 10-3
  • 2.41 x 10-7
scientific notation examples1
Scientific Notation Examples
  • 0.007899 = ?
  • 898745.30 = ?
  • 0.00003657= ?
  • 531120 = ?
units of measurement
Units of Measurement
  • Scientists use the International System of Units (SI units) for measurements.
  • When everyone uses the same units, sharing data and results is easier – less mistakes.
base units
Base Units
  • The official SI units to measure:
    • Length = meter (m)
    • Volume = liter (L)
    • Mass = gram (g)
    • Time = seconds (s)
    • Temperature = Kelvin (K)
derived unit
Derived Unit
  • derived units, are made from combinations of base units.
    • Area: square meter (m2)
    • Volume: cubic meter (m3)
    • Density: kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) [a measurement of mass/area]
    • Pressure: pascal (Pa) [a measurement of force/area]
    • Energy: Hertz (Hz) [a measurement of force/distance]
    • Electric charge: coulomb (C) [is a measurement of current /time]
king henry conversions
King Henry - Conversions
  • Use the sentence “King Henry Died by Drinking Chocolate Milk.” to remember the order of prefixes.

Kilo HectoDekabaseDeciCentiMilli

meter

liter

gram

limits of measurement
Limits of Measurement
  • Precision is a gauge of how exact a measurement is.
  • Precise measurements are close to each other
  • Accuracy is the closeness of a measurement to the actual value of what is being measured
  • An accurate measure is close to the true or expected value
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