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Physical Science. Unit 1: Introduction Chapter 1. What is Science. Science is a system of knowledge and the methods you use to find that knowledge . Science begins with curiosity and often ends with discovery. What is Science?.

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Physical Science

Unit 1:

Introduction

Chapter 1


What is Science

  • Science is a system of knowledge and the methods you use to find that knowledge.

  • Science begins with curiosityand often ends with discovery.


What is Science?

  • Generally scientists believe that the universe can be described by basic rules and these rules can be discovered by careful, methodical study.


Science vs. Technology

Technology – the application of

science

Science and technology are interdependent. Advances in one lead to advances in the other


Branches of Science

Chemistry: The study of Matter and its changes

Physics: The study of Forces and Energy


What is the Scientific Method?

  • Scientific method refers to the techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge

  • It’s an organized plan for gathering, organizing, and communicating information.

  • Everyone can use the scientific method

  • The goal of any scientific method is to solve a problem or to better understand an observed event


How Science is conducted

  • Science is an investigation, which starts with observations leading to inferences.

    • An observation is any information collected with the senses.

    • An inference is conclusions or deductions based on observations.


Practice

  • Observations:

    • I hear people screaming

    • I smell cotton candy, popcorn, and hamburgers

    • I see a lot of people

  • Inference = ?


Basic steps of scientific method

  • Make an observation

  • Ask a question

  • Form a hypothesis

  • Test hypothesis

  • Analyze data/draw conclusion

  • Develop theory


Scientific Method Steps 1-3

  • Begins with an observation

    (ex. I see smoke in the distance)

    2. that leads to a question.

    (ex. what’s causing the smoke)

    3. Form a hypothesis – a possible answer that you can test.

    (ex. Some one is burning leaves.)


Scientific Method Step 4

  • A good experiment tests only one variable at a time.

  • No experiment is a failure.

Conduct an

Experiment


Variables

Variable – anything that can change in an experiment

  • Independent variable – what you change. (manipulated)

  • Dependent variable – what changes because of the independent variable. (responding)

  • Control-what you keep the same


Qualitative vs Quantitative

  • Qualitative – describes with words.

  • Quantitative – describe with measurements


Scientific Method Step 5

  • Data DOES NOT support hypothesis then you need to revise the hypothesis and retest

  • Data supports hypothesis than additional testing is needed before developing a theory

Analyze data


Scientific Method Step 6

  • Is an explanation that has been tested by repeated observations.

  • Are always being

    questioned and examined.

  • To be valid, a theory must continue to pass each test.

Scientific Theory


Scientific Theory (cont.)

  • A theory must explain observations simply and clearly.

  • Experiments that illustrate the theory must be repeatable.

  • You must be able to predict from the theory


Scientific Method Step 6 cont

  • States a repeated observation about nature.

  • Does not explain why an event happens.

Scientific Law


Theories and Laws are not absolute

  • Sometimes theories or Laws have to be changed or replaced completely when new discoveries are made.


Scientific Model

  • Model is an representation of an object or event.

  • Scientific models make it easier to understand things that might be too difficult to observe directly


Graphs

  • A way of organizing and presenting data.

  • Makes relationships more evident.


Line graphs

  • Best for displaying data that change. (anything over time)

  • Numerical vs.

    Numerical.


Multiple Line Graphs

  • Best for comparing multiple values and distributions


Bar Graphs

  • Best when comparing data for several individual items or events.

  • Numerical vs. non-numerical


Circle Graphs (pie charts)

  • Best for displaying data that are parts of a whole.


Scientific Notation

  • When writing very large or very small numbers, scientists use a kind of shorthand called scientific notation.

  • This is a way of writing a number without so many zeros.


Examples:

  • The speed of light is about

    300,000,000 m/s

    • Or 3.0 x 108

  • The mass of a proton is

    0.000000000000000000000001673

    • Or 1.673 X 10-24


All you do is move the decimal

  • 850,000,000.0

    8 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0

    = 8.5 x 108

  • 0.000,000,025

    0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5

    = 2.5 x 10-8

+

-


Scientific Notation Examples

  • 3.256 x 104

  • 9.78 x 109

  • 5.24 x 10-3

  • 2.41 x 10-7


Scientific Notation Examples

  • 0.007899 = ?

  • 898745.30 = ?

  • 0.00003657= ?

  • 531120 = ?


Units of Measurement

  • Scientists use the International System of Units (SI units) for measurements.

  • When everyone uses the same units, sharing data and results is easier – less mistakes.


Base Units

  • The official SI units to measure:

    • Length = meter (m)

    • Volume = liter (L)

    • Mass = gram (g)

    • Time = seconds (s)

    • Temperature = Kelvin (K)


Derived Unit

  • derived units, are made from combinations of base units.

    • Area: square meter (m2)

    • Volume: cubic meter (m3)

    • Density: kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) [a measurement of mass/area]

    • Pressure: pascal (Pa) [a measurement of force/area]

    • Energy: Hertz (Hz) [a measurement of force/distance]

    • Electric charge: coulomb (C) [is a measurement of current /time]


Metric Prefixes

Metric prefixes allow for more convenient ways to express SI base and derived units.


King Henry - Conversions

  • Use the sentence “King Henry Died by Drinking Chocolate Milk.” to remember the order of prefixes.

Kilo HectoDekabaseDeciCentiMilli

meter

liter

gram


Limits of Measurement

  • Precision is a gauge of how exact a measurement is.

  • Precise measurements are close to each other

  • Accuracy is the closeness of a measurement to the actual value of what is being measured

  • An accurate measure is close to the true or expected value


The End


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