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Chapter 3. Basic Concepts of Anthropometry. Objective (from syllabus). To understand the relationship between human body size, shape and composition, and movement capability. Anthropometry. Definition: Dimensions and composition of the body

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Basic Concepts of Anthropometry

objective from syllabus
Objective (from syllabus)
  • To understand the relationship between human body size, shape and composition, and movement capability
anthropometry
Anthropometry
  • Definition:
    • Dimensions and composition of the body
      • E.g. bone thickness & proportions, body fat %, lean body mass
    • See also kinanthropometry, which is the same thing but as applied to movement
  • Tools for measurement
    • All kinds of rulers, calipers and so on (and for lean body mass, some regression models to estimate body fat % based on a variety of assumptions)
      • Stadiometers, anthropometers, bicondylar calipers, skinfold calipers etc...
  • Height, body segment length, bone diameter, skinfold + fat width
anthropometry4
Anthropometry
  • Body size
    • It’s a field for the obsessive in terms of measuring protocols
  • Determination of body shape
    • A variety of proportions are measured
      • BMI (mass/ht2)
      • [(Sitting ht)/)(standing ht)] x 100
    • Certain proportions and shapes have been found to be associated with health or performance in certain activities, hence the interest
  • dimensionality
  • Limb length relative to torso
  • Bulk (fatness?)
  • Consider also cause and effect
  • Exceptions are always interesting though (e.g. Usain Bolt)
anthropometry5
Anthropometry
  • Tissues composing the body
    • Anthropometry is interested in estimating tissue proportion in the living
    • Most popular example is lean body mass & fat – gives the 2-component anthropometric model
      • The book cites errors even with underwater weighing, which is normally the gold standard for estimation of body fat %
      • Should bear in mind that with all estimation techniques, they work best for typical people
    • DEXA (dual x-ray absorpiometry): 3-component model – lean tissue divided into calcified tissue and other non-fat tissue
      • More accurate, but a lot more expensive than a set of calipers
    • General idea here...as opposed to losing weight, you should increase lean body mass (yes, increase...or at least not lose it).
  • So, abnormally fat, thin, or muscular people don’t get such accurate estimates
  • MRI, CAT scans even better but even more expensive
  • Implies increased training to build muscle mass...which in turn leads to fat loss
anthropometry6
Anthropometry
  • Somatotyping
    • The practice of classifying body types according to 3 dimensions (following the most popular Heath-Carter method)
      • Endomorphy (fatness)
      • Mesomorphy (muscularity & bone size)
      • Ectomorphy (thinness)
        • Replete with measurement errors, but still tends to be quite reliably associated with performance stereotypes
  • Bone girth relative to arm, leg girth, with fatness taken out
  • Skinfolds relative to height
  • Weight relative to height
anthropometry7
Anthropometry
  • Human variation
    • Emerges from a variety of causes
      • Age and activity are covered in the next chapters
    • In the musculoskeletal system
      • Nothing very interesting here (and open to misinterpretation)
    • In physical dimensions
      • As before, these are open to misinterpretation and stereotyping
      • Features that are more determined by genetics might (??) be more reasonably analyzed (e.g. jaw line in males generally larger)
  • “typical” make up of males and females is an example of this – see Caster Semenya controversy
chapter 4

Chapter 4

Musculoskeletal changes across the life span

objective from syllabus9
Objective from syllabus
  • To summarize how concepts related to the musculoskeletal system and anthropometry are affected by growth and maturation
auxology and gerontology defined
Auxology and gerontology defined
  • Auxology – the science of growth
    • Is physical age proceeding apace with chronological age?
  • Gerontology – the science of aging
    • What does aging do to your body & mind?
  • Tools for measurement
    • Similar to anthropometry (after all, it’s still measurement)
changes across the lifespan
Changes across the lifespan
  • Physical growth, maturation, and aging
    • Embryological development
      • Ovum + spermatozoan  zygote (fertilized cell)
      • Zygote repeatedly divides and multiplies
      • Mesodermic development follows
        • Growth of organs, tissues, musculoskeletal system
      • Marked by hyperplastic growth (increase in # cells)
    • The postnatal years
      • Keep on growing, keep on maturing (a term implying genetically determined growth)
      • Exercise and aging – see ch. 12
changes across the lifespan12
Changes across the lifespan
  • Age-related changes in the skeletal and articular systems
      • Two main phases
        • Foetal (hyperplastic)
        • Pubertal (hypertrophic)
    • Stages in development of bone
      • Bone grows initially from cartilage
      • Cells calcify and then remodeling proceeds via formation and erosion of cells to give the final shape
    • Growth of length and width of bone
      • Epiphyseal (growth) plate in which cartilage calcifies causes bone to lengthen
        • Continues until cartilage ceases to calcify
      • Change in thickness not limited by age (see ch. 5)
changes across the lifespan13
Changes across the lifespan
  • Age-related changes in the skeletal and articular systems
    • Skeletal composition changes across the life span
      • Childhood: more collagen, thus more flexible bone
      • (Young) Adulthood: more salt, thus more strength
      • Old Adulthood: yet more salt, so more brittle, but also total mass of bone decreases
        • Increased porosity, decreased density, increased hardness, more brittle...not good news...
changes across the lifespan14
Changes across the lifespan
  • Age-related changes in the skeletal and articular systems
    • Osteoporosis
      • In post-menopausal women, linked to estrogen depletion, so that bone absorption increases relative to it’s growth
      • To offset this, as bone mass peaks at 16 to 20, health experts recommend maximizing bone mass by that time
      • Osteoporosis in males is accelerating (lifestyle changes)
    • Bone failure in relation to bone development, age or activity
      • Type of fractures change with age and type of bone
      • Forearm fractures in childhood
      • Hip and wrist fractures in elderly women
    • Effect of various factors on range of motion
      • Decrease with age (how many can still suck their [own] toes)?
      • Decrease with arthritis
changes across the lifespan15
Changes across the lifespan
  • Age-related changes in the muscular system
    • Umm...the more interesting stuff is in chapter 5 (hopefully)
  • Change in body dimensions across the life span
      • The “growth spurt” (peak height velocity) see. P. 49
      • In females early maturers ended up being no different to late maturers in height
      • In males, late maturers started off being shorter and ended up being significantly taller
changes across the lifespan16
Changes across the lifespan
  • Age-related changes in the muscular system
    • Combining size measurements to provide information about shape
changes across the lifespan17
Changes across the lifespan
  • Age-related changes in the muscular system
    • Secular trend in body dimensions
changes across the lifespan18
Changes across the lifespan
  • Age-related changes in the muscular system
    • Growth rates of body segments
      • As expected following fig. 4.5, body parts grow at different rates
        • Limbs grow faster than trunk; legs grow faster than arms
    • Growth rates of body tissues
      • Brain size close to adult early on
      • Reproductive tissue grows rapidly through puberty
changes across the lifespan19
Changes across the lifespan
  • Age-related changes in the muscular system
    • Sexual dimorphism in growth
      • Female growth spurt two years earlier than males’
        • Females often taller than males between 10-13 years
      • Fatness progresses differently for males and females
changes across the lifespan20
Changes across the lifespan
  • Age-related changes in the muscular system
    • Somatotype changes during growth, maturation, and aging
      • 2 pubertal stages in males
        • First an increase in ectomorphy at around 11-15 yrs
        • Then an increase in mesomorphy between 15-24 yrs
  • Methods of determining age
      • Dentistry, bone growth, menarche and sexual maturity are the methods, but there’s nothing of particular interest here. Correct me if I’m wrong
chapter 5

Chapter 5

Musculoskeletal adaptations to training

objective from syllabus22
Objective from syllabus
  • To summarize how concepts related to the musculoskeletal system and anthropometry adapt to physical activity
musculoskeletal adaptations to training
Musculoskeletal adaptations to training
  • Effects of physical activity on bone
      • Generally, the more activity a bone sustains, the more it will adapt to be suited to that activity (gets thicker with prolonged use)
    • Effects of activity level on bone
      • Elite youth athletes and stress fractures – too much too soon
      • Loss of bone mass in space
      • Loss of bone mass at rest (bone needs activity to stay healthily dense)
      • Exercise generally increases bone mass (weight bearing – swimmers vs. others)
musculoskeletal adaptations to training24
Musculoskeletal adaptations to training
  • Effects of physical activity on bone
    • Effects of activity type on bone
      • Weight bearing activities best to add bone
        • Swimmers vs. wtlifters
        • Takes about 3-4 remodelling cycles to reach new steady state for bone tissue quality
        • Bone decreases in quality quicker than it increases, so activity should be sustained for maximum effect
    • Bone repair and physical activity
      • See fig. 5.1 – the implication is that bone (& other tissue) needs time to repair from any inactivity
musculoskeletal adaptations to training25
Musculoskeletal adaptations to training
  • Effects of physical activity on joint structure and ranges of motion
    • Synovial fluid, articular cartilage, and ligaments
      • Cartilage
        • Short bout of cyclical exercise results in thickening of cartilage
        • Thickens as a result of absorbing synovial fluid
        • Chronic exercise leads to long-term thickening
          • (except where compressive forces are excessive – e.g. downhill running)
musculoskeletal adaptations to training26
Musculoskeletal adaptations to training
  • Effects of physical activity on joint structure and ranges of motion
    • Synovial fluid, articular cartilage, and ligaments
      • Synovial fluid
        • Short run can increase synovial fluid from about .2-.5ml in the knee to three times as much
        • Becomes less viscous (hence more easily soaked up by cartilage)
        • Cartilage soaks it up, so it is probably still the cartilage doing the protection
      • Ligament
        • Exercise strengthens and stiffens ligaments (increase in both collagen synthesis & cross linking)
musculoskeletal adaptations to training27
Musculoskeletal adaptations to training
  • Effects of physical activity on joint structure and ranges of motion
    • Degenerative joint disease and exercise
      • Linked with obesity (physical activity?), ageing
      • Does jogging lead to osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease)?
      • Clinicians apparently say so, but the evidence is weak
        • Epidemiological studies imply the relationship exists only for those with previous ligament damage – so that the joint moves abnormally over a protracted period of time
musculoskeletal adaptations to training28
Musculoskeletal adaptations to training
  • Effects of physical activity on muscle-tendon units
    • Muscle size decreases with disuse
    • Flexibility
      • A function of the muscle-tendon unit, not the joint capsule or ligament
      • Joint laxity is a bad thing (stretched ligaments)
      • Highly joint and activity specific
      • Seems to be primarily increased through stretchiness of connective tissue (some sarcomere adaptation)
      • Not limited by increased muscularity (being muscle-bound is not inevitable)
musculoskeletal adaptations to training29
Musculoskeletal adaptations to training
  • Effects of physical activity on muscle-tendon units
    • Strength training
      • First 6-8 weeks: neurotrophic stage – improved coordination leads to rapid increases in strength
      • Then...hypertrophic stage – muscle fibers increase in cross-sectional area
    • Tendon adaptation
      • Slower to adapt than muscle
      • Adapts via collagen synthesis
      • Injuries most common at muscle-tendon junction
musculoskeletal adaptations to training30
Musculoskeletal adaptations to training
  • Effects of physical activity on body size, shape, and composition
      • Body composition will alter as a result of exercise, but ectomorphy might not (and weight might increase)
    • Role of lifestyle factors in determining physique
      • Many differences between athletes’ physique and those of the “normal” population are simply adaptations to training
    • Relationship of body sizes and types to sports
      • Well, we can see it can’t we?
        • Long distance runners are lighter, sprinters more muscular, gymnasts shorter, and so on...
results of lab
Results of Lab

Definitely need to take these with a pinch of salt. We could all do with training/retraining on skinfold techniques, and even then there were some definite issues with the equations

Mesomorphy

Compare to p.61

Ectomorphy

Endomorphy

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