Review of the course
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Review of the course. Preparation for final. What is language?. Communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols. Linguistic Knowledge vs. Linguistic Performance (competence). There’s a distinction between

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Review of the course

Review of the course

Preparation for final


What is language

What is language?

  • Communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols.


Linguistic knowledge vs linguistic performance competence

Linguistic Knowledge vs. Linguistic Performance (competence)

  • There’s a distinction between

    • What you know about “correct” and “incorrect” language

    • Your ability to always produce “correct” sentences.


Review of the course

Animal Languages(?)

A linguistic analysis


Design features of language

Design features of language

  • Design feature 1:

    Semanticity: In human language the elements of the message have specific and fixed relation to real-world situations.

    A message must be understood in the same way by different receivers.


Design features of language1

Design features of language

  • Design feature 2:

    Displacement/freedom from stimulus: In human language it is possible to talk about events remote in time and place.

  • Design feature 3:

    Productivity: In human language, new messages can be produced from the elements of familiar messages; there is no fixed set of possible messages


Design features of language2

Design features of language

  • Design feature 4:

    Dual articulation/duality of patterning: In human language, sounds can go together to make up words, words can go together to make up sentences. (In sign language, there is something similar.)

  • Design feature 5:

    Discreteness: Human language uses a small set of discrete contrastive elements.


Language and the brain

Language and the brain

Insights from Neurolinguistics


Anatomy of the brain

Anatomy of the brain

  • What is a hemisphere, and what is modularity/localization?

  • Who are Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke, and what did they find out?

  • What is Aphasia?

  • What is the relationship between brain development and language development?

  • Who is Noam Chomsky, and what is his theory?

  • What is the critical age hypothesis?

  • Who is Genie and what does her case prove?


What is aphasia

What is Aphasia?

  • Neurological term for disorders that follow brain lesions caused by, for example, strokes.

    • Only on left side

  • Broca’s Aphasia

    • labored speech, word-finding pauses, disturbed word order, difficulties with function word ‘to’, ‘if’

  • Wernicke’s Aphasia

    • fluently with good intonation & pronunciation but lexical errors: “Jargon aphasia”


Morphology

Morphology

The study of the structure of words


What are the building blocks in the formation of complex words

What are the building blocks in the formation of complex words?

  • Morphemes

    • The most elemental unit of a word

  • Morphology

    • Study of the internal structure; rules of word formation


Prefixes suffixes

Prefixes & Suffixes

  • Prefixes are added to the beginning

  • Suffixes are added to the end

  • One morphemeact

  • Two morphemesact + ive

  • Three morphemesact + ive+ate

  • Four morphemesde + act+ ive+ate

  • More than four:

    Anti+dis+establish+ment+ari+an+ism


Root morphemes vs affix morphemes

Root morphemes vs. Affix morphemes

  • What’s a root morpheme?

Note: -roots tend to be free and

lexical

-affixes tend to be bound and

grammatical


Practice

practice

  • Identify the roots in the following words.

  • kingdom_________________________

  • interplanetary_________________________

  • dimensional_________________________

  • margins_________________________


Overview of all discussed distinctions

Overview of all discussed distinctions

Morphemes

bound

free

lexical

-bound roots

grammatical

lexical (root)

inflectional

-eight suffixes

derivational

prefixes

ex:-un

suffixes

ex: -ness


Practice1

practice

For each of the following bound morphemes, determine whether it is derivational or inflectional and give two words in which it appears:

example:

-able: derivational bound morpheme

eat-able; cod(e)-able

  • –ish

  • _____________

  • __________________________

  • –en

  • _____________

  • __________________________

  • ab–

  • _____________

  • __________________________

  • –ed


Word creation in english neologism

Word creation in English (Neologism)

  • Affixing

    • Adding affixes

    • Reducing Affixes (Backformation)

    • A new word created by removing an affix from an already existing word, as vacuum clean from vacuum cleaner,

  • Functional shift

  • Coined words

  • Acronyms

  • Borrowing

  • Blending


Syntax

Syntax

An overview


Phrases

Phrases

NP

VP

NP

det

adj

N

V

det

N

The friendly person

asked a question


Diagramming a sentence

Diagramming a Sentence

S

NP

VP

NP

det

adj

N

V

det

N

The friendly person

asked a question


Linear vs hierarchical structure

Linear vs. Hierarchical structure

  • Meaning

  • (1)A big sale of stereos(2) a sale of big stereos

    Big stereo saleBig stereo sale


Semantics

Semantics

The meaning of language


Lexical relationships cohesive links

Lexical Relationships (cohesive links)

  • Synonyms

  • Antonyms

  • Homonyms (homophones)

  • Hyponymy

    • scarlet, vermilion, carmine, and crimson are all hyponyms of red (their hypernym), which is, in turn, a hyponym of color.


Practice2

practice

  • Give two semantic properties for each of the following words. Use correct notation. (10)

  • a) prostitute______________________________________

  • b) sailor______________________________________

  • c) mountain______________________________________


Connotation and denotation

connotation and denotation

  • Denotation and ConnotationDenotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the "dictionary definition."¨ For example, if you look up the word snake in a dictionary, you will discover that one of its denotative meanings is "any of numerous scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptiles¡Khaving a long, tapering, cylindrical body and found in most tropical and temperate regions."

  • Connotation, on the other hand, refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings. The connotations for the word snake could include evil or danger.


Phonetics the sounds of language

Phonetics: The Sounds of Language


Consonants and their phonetic description

Consonants and their phonetic description

  • How are phonemes produced?

  • Consonants are produced by obstructing the flow of air as it passes from the lungs through the vocal tract.

  • When we describe a consonant, one of the features we use is its place of articulation.

  • The other feature is the manner of articulation.


Place of articulation of english consonants

Place of articulation of English Consonants


Manner of articulation

Manner of Articulation

  • Voiced and voiceless sounds

    • When the vocal cords are apart when speaking, air flows freely through the glottis. Sounds produced in this way are voiceless.

    • If the vocal cords are together, the airstream forces its way through and causes them to vibrate

  • Try it out: put your hand to

    your throat and produce a [z]

    sound as in “buzz”. Now do the

    same with [s] as in “bus”.


Affricates liquids and glides

Affricates,Liquids, and Glides

  • Affricates are produced by a stop which is followed immediately by gradual release of air. Stop + fricative = affricate

    • There are only two: [tʃ] and [dʒ]

  • Liquids

    • During the production of the sounds [l] and [r], there is no real obstruction of the airflow that causes friction. Hence, these sounds are not stops, fricatives or affricates. They are called liquids

  • Glides

    • Are not causing significant obstruction and are always followed by vowels.

    • [j] and [w]


Vowels

Vowels

  • Vowel Qualities

  • The placement of the body of the tongue:

    • Vertical: high – mid – low

    • Horizontal: front – central – back

  • The shape of the lips:

    • Rounded – Unrounded

  • The degree of the vocal tract contraction:

    • Tense – Lax


Practice3

practice

Write the phonetic symbol for the final sound

opposite__

knee__

Phetkasem__

chips__

welcome__

ugly__


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