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Management Information Systems By Effy Oz & Andy Jones. Chapter 1: Business Hardware and Software. www.cengage.co.uk/oz. Objectives. List major hardware components of computers and explain their functions Classify computers into major categories, and identify their strengths and weaknesses

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management information systems by effy oz andy jones
Management Information SystemsByEffy Oz & Andy Jones

Chapter 1: Business Hardware and Software

www.cengage.co.uk/oz

objectives
Objectives
  • List major hardware components of computers and explain their functions
  • Classify computers into major categories, and identify their strengths and weaknesses
  • Identify and evaluate key criteria for deciding what computers or related devices to purchase
objectives continued
Objectives (continued)
  • Discuss the possible health hazards of computer use
  • Explain the difference between application software and system software
  • Enumerate the different generations of programming languages and explain how they differ
objectives continued1
Objectives (continued)
  • Cite the latest major developments in application and system software
  • Clarify the differences between proprietary software and open source software
  • List characteristics that are important in evaluating packaged software applications for business use
  • Understand the problem of software piracy and how it affects businesses and consumers
hardware components
Hardware Components
  • Hardware: physical computer components
    • Consider software before hardware
    • Computer must handle four operations
      • Accept data
      • Store data
      • Process data
      • Output data
hardware components continued1
Hardware Components (continued)
  • Input devices: receive signals from outside of computer and transfer them into computer
  • Central processing unit
    • Accepts instructions and data
    • Decodes and executes instructions
    • Stores output in memory
hardware components continued2
Hardware Components (continued)
  • Internal memory: stores data and instructions before and after CPU processes them
    • RAM: random access memory
    • ROM: read-only memory
  • Motherboard: CPU and primary memory reside
hardware components continued3
Hardware Components (continued)
  • External Memory: magnetic disks, magnetic tapes, optical discs, DVDs, and flash memory
    • Allows permanent storage
  • Output devices: deliver information from computer to person
    • Most commonly monitors and printers
    • Includes audio devices
hardware components continued4
Hardware Components (continued)
  • Bit: Binary digit
    • 0 or 1
  • Byte: a standard group of eight bits
    • Most characters represented by single byte
classification of computers
Classification of Computers
  • Computers vary in size
  • Classified by power
    • Depends on processing speed and memory size
  • More powerful computers are more expensive
supercomputers
Supercomputers
  • Supercomputers: most powerful computer at any given time
    • Largest in physical size and most expensive
  • Parallel processing: multiple processors running simultaneously
    • Also known as multiprocessing
mainframe computers
Mainframe Computers
  • Mainframe computers: store large amounts of data and business transactions
    • Less expensive and less powerful than supercomputers
    • Banks, universities, and insurance companies use them as a central computer
    • 40-50% of world’s business data resides on mainframes
    • Use multiple processors
midrange computers
Midrange computers
  • Midrange computers: often act as servers within organizations or through the Internet
    • Smaller and less powerful than mainframes
    • Serves hundred of users that connect from personal computers
    • Use multiple processors
microcomputers
Microcomputers
  • Microcomputers: personal computers, notebook computers, and handhelds
  • Workstation: more powerful microcomputer used for CAD, CAM, and scientific applications
  • Power doubles about every two years
computers on the go notebook handheld and tablet computers
Computers on the Go: Notebook, Handheld, and Tablet Computers
  • Notebook computer: compact personal computer powered by rechargeable battery
  • New models include wireless technology
  • Personal digital assistant: handheld computer
  • Stylus used to enter data through touch screen
  • Tablet computer: PC on a thick writing tablet
converging technologies
Converging Technologies
  • Technology convergence: build several technologies into single piece of hardware
    • Prominent in handheld units
  • Commonly merged technologies include
    • Cell phones
    • Television
    • Digital cameras
    • MP3 players
a peek inside the computer
A Peek Inside the Computer
  • Professionals must know computer components to understand its power and capabilities
  • Use the knowledge to make good decisions in purchasing a computer
the central processing unit
The Central Processing Unit
  • CPU has two units to store and process data
    • Control unit and arithmetic logic unit
  • CPU is silicon chip with multiple circuits
  • Also known as microprocessor
  • Modern processors can do multithreading
    • Processing more than one program at a time
the central processing unit continued
The Central Processing Unit (continued)
  • Microprocessors are embedded with transistors
  • Transistor is a semiconductor that can represent binary code’s two states
  • Machine Cycle (CPU):
    • Fetch, decode execute each instruction
  • Data word: maximum number of bits that the control unit can fetch
  • Arithmetic Logic Unit: arithmetic and logic
computer power
Computer Power
  • Computer power depends on processing speed and memory capacity
  • Bus: electronic lines or traces used for communication inside computer
  • Throughput: number of bits per second bus can accommodate
  • MIPS: millions of instructions per second, a common measure of computer speed
input devices
Input Devices
  • Computers must receive input to produce output
  • Input devices include machines used to enter instructions and data into computer
  • Most common input device is keyboard
keyboard
Keyboard
  • Contains keys that users press to enter data
  • Includes letters, numbers, and punctuation
  • QWERTY and Dvorak: QWERTY standard
    • Dvorak facilitates faster typing
  • Ergonomic keyboard: fits the natural position of forearms and prevents injury
mouse trackball and trackpad
Mouse, Trackball, and Trackpad
  • Mouse: controls onscreen pointer to facilitate point-and-click approach
  • Trackball: similar to mouse, but ball moves within device
  • Trackpad: cursor controlled by touch-sensitive pad
  • Mice and similar devices can be wireless units
touch screen
Touch Screen
  • Touch screen: both input and output device
    • Often used for public applications
    • Prevalent in handheld devices
source data input devices
Source Data Input Devices
  • Source data input devices: copy data directly from source
    • Bar-codes, credit cards, and checks
  • Use optical recognition devices, which detect positions of marks or characters
  • Magnetic-ink character recognition: detects magnetic ink on cheques
imaging
Imaging
  • Imaging: converting documents into images
    • Saves paper
    • More efficient retrieval and filing
  • Scanned document can be destroyed after scan
speech recognition
Speech Recognition
  • Translating human speech into computer-readable data and instructions
  • Receive input from microphone and process with software
  • May increase noise level in offices
output devices
Output Devices
  • Most popular devices are monitors and printers
  • Other output includes speakers
monitors
Monitors
  • Cathode-ray tube: inner side of screen has layer of phosphoric dots called pixels
    • Electron gun receives instructions from computer and sweeps the pixels
  • Flat-panel monitor: includes liquid crystal display, which uses a liquid crystal filled screen, whose molecules align in different places when given electric charge
printers
Printers
  • Nonimpact printer: does not mechanically impact the paper
    • Laser printer is most common in business
    • Others: ink-jet and electrothermal printers
  • Impact printers: reproduce image by using mechanical impact
    • Dot-matrix printer has pins that strike ink ribbon against paper
storage media
Storage Media
  • Data must be stored on nonvolatile medium
    • Data is retained even when not powered
  • Storage devices differ in technology used to maintain data and physical structure
modes of access
Modes of Access
  • Sequential storage: data is organized one record after another
    • Slower and less convenient
  • Direct access: records are organized by physical address on the device
  • Flash drives: small storage devices that connect via universal serial bus
  • Direct access storage media is only practical way to organize and query databases
magnetic tapes
Magnetic Tapes
  • Magnetic tapes: similar to tape recorders and VCRs
    • Provide lowest cost (bytes per dollar)
    • Can backup all data
    • Takes long time to copy from tape
    • Unreliable after a long period of time
magnetic disks
Magnetic Disks
  • Magnetic disk: most widely used storage medium
  • Hard disk: stack of several aluminum platters installed in same box that holds CPU
    • Stores up to 500 GB of data
    • External hard disks connect to computer through USB port
optical discs
Optical Discs
  • Optical disc: recorded by treating disc surface to reflect light in different ways
  • Compact discs: available as read-only, recordable, and rewritable
  • DVDs: store 4.7 GB per side
  • Optical discs are slower than hard disks
optical tape
Optical Tape
  • Optical tape uses same technology as optical discs to store and retrieve data
  • Bits are organized sequentially like tape
  • Used in digital video camcorders
flash memory
Flash Memory
  • Flash memory: memory chip that can be rewritten and holds content without power
  • Available as memory card and USB drive
  • Solid state disk: storage media that does not have latency time
business considerations in evaluating storage media
Business Considerations in Evaluating Storage Media
  • When purchasing storage devices managers must consider:
    • How the data is used
    • Capacity of the device
    • Speed and cost
    • Reliability and portability
considerations in purchasing hardware
Considerations in Purchasing Hardware
  • Companies must consider the following when deciding what to purchase:
    • Power of the equipment
    • Expansion slots and ports
    • Monitor type and resolution
    • Ergonomics
considerations in purchasing hardware continued
Considerations in Purchasing Hardware (continued)
  • Other factors include:
    • Compatibility with existing hardware
    • Physical size of computer
    • Reliability of vendor
    • Power consumption and noise
    • Scalability
software instructions to the computer
Software: Instructions to the Computer
  • Applications: programs that contribute to productivity
  • Software: series of instructions to execute processes
  • Software categories:
    • Application software: enables task completion
    • System software: enables applications to run on computer
programming languages and software development tools
Programming Languages and Software Development Tools
  • Programs needed for every computer operation
  • Programming: process of writing programs
  • Machine language: language hardware understands
    • 0’s and 1’s
  • Assembly language: easier to program than machine language
    • Uses words
  • High-level programming language: English-like statements
programming languages and software development tools continued
Programming Languages and Software Development Tools (continued)
  • Software development tools: develop software with little knowledge of programming languages
  • Third-generation languages known as “procedural” languages
    • Programmer must detail logical procedure
  • Fourth-generation languages closer to human language
  • Debugging: locating and fixing program errors
visual programming
Visual Programming
  • Visual programming languages: create graphics by selecting icons from palette
    • Microsoft Visual Basic
    • Borland Delphi
    • Visual C++
    • User can still work at the code level
object oriented programming
Object-Oriented Programming
  • Object-oriented programming: modular approach to programming
    • Ease of maintenance
    • Object contains data elements and methods that perform functions
    • Objects reusable and combined in complex programs
    • Include C++, Object Pascal, and Java
object oriented programming continued
Object-Oriented Programming (continued)
  • Increasing amount of software developed for Web
  • Web programming languages include Java, JavaScript, J2EE, and PHP
  • Applet: code produced by Web programming language
    • Runs same on different operating systems
application software
Application Software
  • Application can be software to let nonprogrammers develop their own tools
  • Application-specific software: performs specific jobs
  • General-purpose application software: serves multiple purposes
    • Usually comes as packaged software
  • Packaged software: ready to install from external storage medium
office productivity applications
Office Productivity Applications
  • Productivity tools: assist normal office work
  • Word processors: type letters and articles
  • Spreadsheets: store numbers
    • Perform complex mathematical, statistical, and financial functions
  • Presentation tools: develop impressive presentations quickly
office productivity applications continued
Office Productivity Applications (continued)
  • File management tools: create and manipulate local or shared databases
  • Graphics programs: create intricate graphics
    • Manipulate digital photographs
  • Desktop publishing tools:
    • Pamphlets
    • Cards
    • Calendars
office productivity applications continued1
Office Productivity Applications (continued)
  • Project management tools: plan projects and track progress
  • Suite: collection of various applications
    • Perform multiple interrelated functions
system software
System Software
  • System software: deals with essential operations
    • User interface
    • Loading files
    • Copying files
    • Managing memory resources
    • Encompasses compilers and interpreters
  • Applications must be compatible with system software
operating systems
Operating Systems
  • Operating system: most important program
    • Recognizes input from keyboard
    • Sends output to computer display
    • Keeps track of files and directories
    • Runs applications
operating systems continued
Operating Systems (continued)
  • Operating system manages memory
  • Also known as “platform”
  • Interacts with user and CPU
  • Utilities: another OS functions
    • Hardware diagnostics
    • Disk check
    • File sorting
operating systems continued1
Operating Systems (continued)
  • Operating system functions include user interface
    • Originally text prompts
    • Later graphical user interfaces
  • Operating system must allocate memory
    • Virtual memory: hard disk acts as RAM
operating systems continued2
Operating Systems (continued)
  • Plug-and-play: run a device as soon as you physically attach it
  • Driver: enables OS to control device
  • Operating systems incorporating more services
    • Database management
    • Networking
    • Security
operating systems continued3
Operating Systems (continued)
  • Current operating systems
    • Windows XP
    • Linux
    • Mac OS
  • Linux: Free OS
    • Based on UNIX
  • Some versions of Windows notoriously unstable
  • OS based on UNIX highly stable
other system software
Other System Software
  • Other system software
    • Compilers
    • Interpreters
    • Communications software
    • Utilities
    • Communications software supports transmission and reception of data across networks
    • Utilities include antivirus programs, firewalls, and spyware eliminators
open source software
Open Source Software
  • Proprietary software: sold for profit
    • Private code
    • Developer retains rights to software
  • Open source software: free source code
    • Fewer bugs because many programmers review
    • Mozilla Firefox
    • Thunderbird
    • MySQL
    • PERL
open source software continued
Open Source Software (continued)
  • Not all free software is open source
    • Microsoft Internet Explorer
  • Linux best known open source operating system
    • Popular because of versatility
    • Runs on:
      • Mainframes
      • Handhelds
      • Electronic devices
software licensing
Software Licensing
  • Software is usually licensed
  • Licensed software: limited permission
    • Time-limited license requires annual fees
  • Several models
    • Permissive model
      • Anyone can use and sell modified versions
    • General public license
      • Cannot sell for profit
considerations for packaged software
Considerations for Packaged Software
  • Many goals and custom requirements during development process
  • Factors when purchasing large software packages more complex
    • Cost
    • Time to implement
    • Cost of interrupting operations
    • Modification costs
summary
Summary
  • Understanding hardware is important for purchasing decisions
  • Computers classified according to power
  • All computers have CPU to process instructions
  • Clock rate measures the speed of a CPU
  • Computer word is the number of bits it can process in a single cycle
summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • Computer power: speed and memory size
  • RAM is volatile memory that forms a large part of computer’s memory
  • ROM is nonvolatile: does not require power
  • Imaging devices help process text and graphics
  • When evaluating external storage, consider density, transfer rate, capacity, portability, format
summary continued1
Summary (continued)
  • Data organized sequentially on tapes
  • Direct access storage devices include RAM, magnetic disks, and optical discs
  • Databases require direct access storage devices
  • When purchasing hardware, managers should consider power, scalability, and compatibility
summary continued2
Summary (continued)
  • Information technology may pose health risks such as carpel tunnel syndrome
  • Software is collective term for computer programs
  • Software classified as: system or application
  • Programming languages and software development tools help develop software
summary continued3
Summary (continued)
  • Increasing amount of software is linked to Internet
  • Some application programs custom designed, and many are packaged
  • Office productivity tools such as word processors and spreadsheets help worker efficiency
summary continued4
Summary (continued)
  • Most important system software is operating system
  • Open source software
    • Distributed freely
    • More reliable
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