Management information systems by effy oz andy jones
Download
1 / 76

Management Information Systems By Effy Oz & Andy Jones - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 265 Views
  • Uploaded on

Management Information Systems By Effy Oz & Andy Jones. Chapter 1: Business Hardware and Software. www.cengage.co.uk/oz. Objectives. List major hardware components of computers and explain their functions Classify computers into major categories, and identify their strengths and weaknesses

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Management Information Systems By Effy Oz & Andy Jones' - bevan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Management information systems by effy oz andy jones
Management Information SystemsByEffy Oz & Andy Jones

Chapter 1: Business Hardware and Software

www.cengage.co.uk/oz


Objectives
Objectives

  • List major hardware components of computers and explain their functions

  • Classify computers into major categories, and identify their strengths and weaknesses

  • Identify and evaluate key criteria for deciding what computers or related devices to purchase


Objectives continued
Objectives (continued)

  • Discuss the possible health hazards of computer use

  • Explain the difference between application software and system software

  • Enumerate the different generations of programming languages and explain how they differ


Objectives continued1
Objectives (continued)

  • Cite the latest major developments in application and system software

  • Clarify the differences between proprietary software and open source software

  • List characteristics that are important in evaluating packaged software applications for business use

  • Understand the problem of software piracy and how it affects businesses and consumers


Hardware components
Hardware Components

  • Hardware: physical computer components

    • Consider software before hardware

    • Computer must handle four operations

      • Accept data

      • Store data

      • Process data

      • Output data



Hardware components continued1
Hardware Components (continued)

  • Input devices: receive signals from outside of computer and transfer them into computer

  • Central processing unit

    • Accepts instructions and data

    • Decodes and executes instructions

    • Stores output in memory


Hardware components continued2
Hardware Components (continued)

  • Internal memory: stores data and instructions before and after CPU processes them

    • RAM: random access memory

    • ROM: read-only memory

  • Motherboard: CPU and primary memory reside


Hardware components continued3
Hardware Components (continued)

  • External Memory: magnetic disks, magnetic tapes, optical discs, DVDs, and flash memory

    • Allows permanent storage

  • Output devices: deliver information from computer to person

    • Most commonly monitors and printers

    • Includes audio devices


Hardware components continued4
Hardware Components (continued)

  • Bit: Binary digit

    • 0 or 1

  • Byte: a standard group of eight bits

    • Most characters represented by single byte



Classification of computers
Classification of Computers

  • Computers vary in size

  • Classified by power

    • Depends on processing speed and memory size

  • More powerful computers are more expensive


Supercomputers
Supercomputers

  • Supercomputers: most powerful computer at any given time

    • Largest in physical size and most expensive

  • Parallel processing: multiple processors running simultaneously

    • Also known as multiprocessing


Mainframe computers
Mainframe Computers

  • Mainframe computers: store large amounts of data and business transactions

    • Less expensive and less powerful than supercomputers

    • Banks, universities, and insurance companies use them as a central computer

    • 40-50% of world’s business data resides on mainframes

    • Use multiple processors


Midrange computers
Midrange computers

  • Midrange computers: often act as servers within organizations or through the Internet

    • Smaller and less powerful than mainframes

    • Serves hundred of users that connect from personal computers

    • Use multiple processors


Microcomputers
Microcomputers

  • Microcomputers: personal computers, notebook computers, and handhelds

  • Workstation: more powerful microcomputer used for CAD, CAM, and scientific applications

  • Power doubles about every two years


Computers on the go notebook handheld and tablet computers
Computers on the Go: Notebook, Handheld, and Tablet Computers

  • Notebook computer: compact personal computer powered by rechargeable battery

  • New models include wireless technology

  • Personal digital assistant: handheld computer

  • Stylus used to enter data through touch screen

  • Tablet computer: PC on a thick writing tablet


Converging technologies
Converging Technologies Computers

  • Technology convergence: build several technologies into single piece of hardware

    • Prominent in handheld units

  • Commonly merged technologies include

    • Cell phones

    • Television

    • Digital cameras

    • MP3 players


A peek inside the computer
A Peek Inside the Computer Computers

  • Professionals must know computer components to understand its power and capabilities

  • Use the knowledge to make good decisions in purchasing a computer


The central processing unit
The Central Processing Unit Computers

  • CPU has two units to store and process data

    • Control unit and arithmetic logic unit

  • CPU is silicon chip with multiple circuits

  • Also known as microprocessor

  • Modern processors can do multithreading

    • Processing more than one program at a time


The central processing unit continued
The Central Processing Unit (continued) Computers

  • Microprocessors are embedded with transistors

  • Transistor is a semiconductor that can represent binary code’s two states

  • Machine Cycle (CPU):

    • Fetch, decode execute each instruction

  • Data word: maximum number of bits that the control unit can fetch

  • Arithmetic Logic Unit: arithmetic and logic


Computer power
Computer Power Computers

  • Computer power depends on processing speed and memory capacity

  • Bus: electronic lines or traces used for communication inside computer

  • Throughput: number of bits per second bus can accommodate

  • MIPS: millions of instructions per second, a common measure of computer speed


Input devices
Input Devices Computers

  • Computers must receive input to produce output

  • Input devices include machines used to enter instructions and data into computer

  • Most common input device is keyboard


Keyboard
Keyboard Computers

  • Contains keys that users press to enter data

  • Includes letters, numbers, and punctuation

  • QWERTY and Dvorak: QWERTY standard

    • Dvorak facilitates faster typing

  • Ergonomic keyboard: fits the natural position of forearms and prevents injury


Mouse trackball and trackpad
Mouse, Trackball, and Trackpad Computers

  • Mouse: controls onscreen pointer to facilitate point-and-click approach

  • Trackball: similar to mouse, but ball moves within device

  • Trackpad: cursor controlled by touch-sensitive pad

  • Mice and similar devices can be wireless units


Touch screen
Touch Screen Computers

  • Touch screen: both input and output device

    • Often used for public applications

    • Prevalent in handheld devices


Source data input devices
Source Data Input Devices Computers

  • Source data input devices: copy data directly from source

    • Bar-codes, credit cards, and checks

  • Use optical recognition devices, which detect positions of marks or characters

  • Magnetic-ink character recognition: detects magnetic ink on cheques


Imaging
Imaging Computers

  • Imaging: converting documents into images

    • Saves paper

    • More efficient retrieval and filing

  • Scanned document can be destroyed after scan


Speech recognition
Speech Recognition Computers

  • Translating human speech into computer-readable data and instructions

  • Receive input from microphone and process with software

  • May increase noise level in offices


Output devices
Output Devices Computers

  • Most popular devices are monitors and printers

  • Other output includes speakers


Monitors
Monitors Computers

  • Cathode-ray tube: inner side of screen has layer of phosphoric dots called pixels

    • Electron gun receives instructions from computer and sweeps the pixels

  • Flat-panel monitor: includes liquid crystal display, which uses a liquid crystal filled screen, whose molecules align in different places when given electric charge


Printers
Printers Computers

  • Nonimpact printer: does not mechanically impact the paper

    • Laser printer is most common in business

    • Others: ink-jet and electrothermal printers

  • Impact printers: reproduce image by using mechanical impact

    • Dot-matrix printer has pins that strike ink ribbon against paper


Storage media
Storage Media Computers

  • Data must be stored on nonvolatile medium

    • Data is retained even when not powered

  • Storage devices differ in technology used to maintain data and physical structure


Modes of access
Modes of Access Computers

  • Sequential storage: data is organized one record after another

    • Slower and less convenient

  • Direct access: records are organized by physical address on the device

  • Flash drives: small storage devices that connect via universal serial bus

  • Direct access storage media is only practical way to organize and query databases



Magnetic tapes
Magnetic Tapes Computers

  • Magnetic tapes: similar to tape recorders and VCRs

    • Provide lowest cost (bytes per dollar)

    • Can backup all data

    • Takes long time to copy from tape

    • Unreliable after a long period of time


Magnetic disks
Magnetic Disks Computers

  • Magnetic disk: most widely used storage medium

  • Hard disk: stack of several aluminum platters installed in same box that holds CPU

    • Stores up to 500 GB of data

    • External hard disks connect to computer through USB port


Optical discs
Optical Discs Computers

  • Optical disc: recorded by treating disc surface to reflect light in different ways

  • Compact discs: available as read-only, recordable, and rewritable

  • DVDs: store 4.7 GB per side

  • Optical discs are slower than hard disks


Optical tape
Optical Tape Computers

  • Optical tape uses same technology as optical discs to store and retrieve data

  • Bits are organized sequentially like tape

  • Used in digital video camcorders


Flash memory
Flash Memory Computers

  • Flash memory: memory chip that can be rewritten and holds content without power

  • Available as memory card and USB drive

  • Solid state disk: storage media that does not have latency time


Business considerations in evaluating storage media
Business Considerations in Evaluating Storage Media Computers

  • When purchasing storage devices managers must consider:

    • How the data is used

    • Capacity of the device

    • Speed and cost

    • Reliability and portability



Considerations in purchasing hardware
Considerations in Purchasing Hardware (continued)

  • Companies must consider the following when deciding what to purchase:

    • Power of the equipment

    • Expansion slots and ports

    • Monitor type and resolution

    • Ergonomics


Considerations in purchasing hardware continued
Considerations in Purchasing Hardware (continued) (continued)

  • Other factors include:

    • Compatibility with existing hardware

    • Physical size of computer

    • Reliability of vendor

    • Power consumption and noise

    • Scalability


Software instructions to the computer
Software: Instructions to the Computer (continued)

  • Applications: programs that contribute to productivity

  • Software: series of instructions to execute processes

  • Software categories:

    • Application software: enables task completion

    • System software: enables applications to run on computer


Programming languages and software development tools
Programming Languages and Software Development Tools (continued)

  • Programs needed for every computer operation

  • Programming: process of writing programs

  • Machine language: language hardware understands

    • 0’s and 1’s

  • Assembly language: easier to program than machine language

    • Uses words

  • High-level programming language: English-like statements


Programming languages and software development tools continued
Programming Languages and Software Development Tools (continued)

  • Software development tools: develop software with little knowledge of programming languages

  • Third-generation languages known as “procedural” languages

    • Programmer must detail logical procedure

  • Fourth-generation languages closer to human language

  • Debugging: locating and fixing program errors




Visual programming
Visual Programming (continued)

  • Visual programming languages: create graphics by selecting icons from palette

    • Microsoft Visual Basic

    • Borland Delphi

    • Visual C++

    • User can still work at the code level


Object oriented programming
Object-Oriented Programming (continued)

  • Object-oriented programming: modular approach to programming

    • Ease of maintenance

    • Object contains data elements and methods that perform functions

    • Objects reusable and combined in complex programs

    • Include C++, Object Pascal, and Java


Object oriented programming continued
Object-Oriented Programming (continued) (continued)

  • Increasing amount of software developed for Web

  • Web programming languages include Java, JavaScript, J2EE, and PHP

  • Applet: code produced by Web programming language

    • Runs same on different operating systems



Application software
Application Software (continued)

  • Application can be software to let nonprogrammers develop their own tools

  • Application-specific software: performs specific jobs

  • General-purpose application software: serves multiple purposes

    • Usually comes as packaged software

  • Packaged software: ready to install from external storage medium


Office productivity applications
Office Productivity Applications (continued)

  • Productivity tools: assist normal office work

  • Word processors: type letters and articles

  • Spreadsheets: store numbers

    • Perform complex mathematical, statistical, and financial functions

  • Presentation tools: develop impressive presentations quickly


Office productivity applications continued
Office Productivity Applications (continued) (continued)

  • File management tools: create and manipulate local or shared databases

  • Graphics programs: create intricate graphics

    • Manipulate digital photographs

  • Desktop publishing tools:

    • Pamphlets

    • Cards

    • Calendars


Office productivity applications continued1
Office Productivity Applications (continued) (continued)

  • Project management tools: plan projects and track progress

  • Suite: collection of various applications

    • Perform multiple interrelated functions


System software
System Software (continued)

  • System software: deals with essential operations

    • User interface

    • Loading files

    • Copying files

    • Managing memory resources

    • Encompasses compilers and interpreters

  • Applications must be compatible with system software


Operating systems
Operating Systems (continued)

  • Operating system: most important program

    • Recognizes input from keyboard

    • Sends output to computer display

    • Keeps track of files and directories

    • Runs applications


Operating systems continued
Operating Systems (continued) (continued)

  • Operating system manages memory

  • Also known as “platform”

  • Interacts with user and CPU

  • Utilities: another OS functions

    • Hardware diagnostics

    • Disk check

    • File sorting


Operating systems continued1
Operating Systems (continued) (continued)

  • Operating system functions include user interface

    • Originally text prompts

    • Later graphical user interfaces

  • Operating system must allocate memory

    • Virtual memory: hard disk acts as RAM


Operating systems continued2
Operating Systems (continued) (continued)

  • Plug-and-play: run a device as soon as you physically attach it

  • Driver: enables OS to control device

  • Operating systems incorporating more services

    • Database management

    • Networking

    • Security


Operating systems continued3
Operating Systems (continued) (continued)

  • Current operating systems

    • Windows XP

    • Linux

    • Mac OS

  • Linux: Free OS

    • Based on UNIX

  • Some versions of Windows notoriously unstable

  • OS based on UNIX highly stable




Other system software
Other System Software (continued)

  • Other system software

    • Compilers

    • Interpreters

    • Communications software

    • Utilities

    • Communications software supports transmission and reception of data across networks

    • Utilities include antivirus programs, firewalls, and spyware eliminators


Open source software
Open Source Software (continued)

  • Proprietary software: sold for profit

    • Private code

    • Developer retains rights to software

  • Open source software: free source code

    • Fewer bugs because many programmers review

    • Mozilla Firefox

    • Thunderbird

    • MySQL

    • PERL


Open source software continued
Open Source Software (continued) (continued)

  • Not all free software is open source

    • Microsoft Internet Explorer

  • Linux best known open source operating system

    • Popular because of versatility

    • Runs on:

      • Mainframes

      • Handhelds

      • Electronic devices


Software licensing
Software Licensing (continued)

  • Software is usually licensed

  • Licensed software: limited permission

    • Time-limited license requires annual fees

  • Several models

    • Permissive model

      • Anyone can use and sell modified versions

    • General public license

      • Cannot sell for profit


Considerations for packaged software
Considerations for Packaged Software (continued)

  • Many goals and custom requirements during development process

  • Factors when purchasing large software packages more complex

    • Cost

    • Time to implement

    • Cost of interrupting operations

    • Modification costs


Summary
Summary (continued)

  • Understanding hardware is important for purchasing decisions

  • Computers classified according to power

  • All computers have CPU to process instructions

  • Clock rate measures the speed of a CPU

  • Computer word is the number of bits it can process in a single cycle


Summary continued
Summary (continued) (continued)

  • Computer power: speed and memory size

  • RAM is volatile memory that forms a large part of computer’s memory

  • ROM is nonvolatile: does not require power

  • Imaging devices help process text and graphics

  • When evaluating external storage, consider density, transfer rate, capacity, portability, format


Summary continued1
Summary (continued) (continued)

  • Data organized sequentially on tapes

  • Direct access storage devices include RAM, magnetic disks, and optical discs

  • Databases require direct access storage devices

  • When purchasing hardware, managers should consider power, scalability, and compatibility


Summary continued2
Summary (continued) (continued)

  • Information technology may pose health risks such as carpel tunnel syndrome

  • Software is collective term for computer programs

  • Software classified as: system or application

  • Programming languages and software development tools help develop software


Summary continued3
Summary (continued) (continued)

  • Increasing amount of software is linked to Internet

  • Some application programs custom designed, and many are packaged

  • Office productivity tools such as word processors and spreadsheets help worker efficiency


Summary continued4
Summary (continued) (continued)

  • Most important system software is operating system

  • Open source software

    • Distributed freely

    • More reliable


ad