Breath it in
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Breath It In!!. The Earths Atmosphere What will happen in the future if we don’t change ? AOI: Environments. Contents. Composition of the earths atmosphere and it’s properties Structure of the atmosphere Atmospheric Pressure The importance of the atmosphere Observing the sky

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Breath It In!!

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Breath it in

BreathIt In!!

TheEarthsAtmosphere

Whatwillhappen in thefutureifwedon’tchange?

AOI: Environments


Contents

Contents

  • Composition of theearthsatmosphere and it’sproperties

  • Structure of theatmosphere

  • AtmosphericPressure

  • Theimportance of theatmosphere

  • Observingthesky

  • Atmosphericphenomena

  • Air pollution


Composition of the atmosphere

Composition of theatmosphere

  • Theatmosphereis a gaseouslayerwhichsurroundstheplanet

  • Itisabout 500 km thick, butmost of the gases are in thetroposphere (0 km to 15 km up)

  • Air ismainlymade of Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), Carbondioxide (0.04%), Watervapour ( around 1%) and other gases likeargon (around 1 %)


Composition of the atmosphere1

Composition of theatmosphere

  • These gases are a mixture becausethey are notchemicallyboundtogether and can be seperated.

  • For more on gases:

    http://www.skoool.ie/skoool/junior.asp?id=400


Structure of the atmosphere

Structure of theatmosphere


Atmospheric layers

Atmosphericlayers

Troposphere

  • This is where all plants and animals live and breathe

  • Where weather takes place

  • Air is mixes

  • T decreases with altitude


Atmospheric layers1

Atmosphericlayers

Stratosphere

  • Ozone in this layer stops many of the sun's harmful rays from reaching the earth

  • People can not breathe in this layer.


Atmospheric layers2

Atmosphericlayers

Mesosphere

  • T decreases with altitude

  • This is where we see “shooting stars" – meteors burning up as they fall to Earth


Atmospheric layers3

Atmosphericlayers

Thermosphere

  • Layer of the atmosphere which is first exposed to the Sun's radiation and so is first heated by the Sun.

  • The air is very thin

  • The temperature dependent on solar activity.


Air pressure

AIR PRESSURE


Keeping an atmosphere

Keeping an Atmosphere

  • Atmosphere is kept by the world’s gravity

    • Low mass (small) worlds= low gravity

      =almost no atm.

    • High mass (large) worlds = high gravity

      = thick atm.

  • Gravity and pressure

    • Air pressure depends on how much gas there is i.e. The atmospheric thickness.


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Gravity and Atmospheric Pressure

  • The stronger the gravity, the more gas is held by the world and the greater the weight of atm. on a point


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The air is made up of molecules.


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Gravity pulls the air molecules toward the earth, giving them weight. The weight of the air molecules all around us is called the air pressure.


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High altitudes = lower pressure

Low altitudes = higher pressure


Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric Pressure

Gas pressure depends on both density and temperature.

Adding air molecules increases the pressure in a balloon.

Heating the air also increases the pressure.


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Air pressure is equal in all directions.

Pressure = force per unit area


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Barometric pressure goes down.

As elevation goes up

This is an inverse relationship.


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In 1643, Evangelista Torricelli invented the barometer


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Torricelli’s barometer used a glass column suspended in a bowl of mercury. The pressure of the air molecules pushed the mercury up into the glass tube.

The weight of the mercury in the tube was equal to the weight of the air pressing down on the mercury in the dish.


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As atmospheric pressure increases…

The mercury in the tube rises.


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The Mercury Barometer

Good:

Bad:

  • Simple to construct

  • Highly accurate

  • Glass tube is fragile

  • Mercury is very toxic!


The greenhouse effect

TheGreenhouseeffect

  • http://www.skoool.ie/content/skoool_learning/junior/lessons/science/conservation/flash/h-frame-ns6.htm

  • Pages 1-10


The greenhouse effect1

TheGreenhouseeffect

TheGreenhouseEffectis NOT thesame as Global Warming


The greenhouse effect2

TheGreenhouseEffect

  • Light containsenergy and travelslike a wave


The greenhouse effect3

TheGreenhouseEffect

  • Toomuch light energyisstaying in theatmospherebecause of greenhouse gases likeCarbonDioxide and Methane

  • Thisismakingtheplanethotteroverall

  • Thisiscauseingproblemslike:

  • Flooding (ice capsmelting)

  • Drought

  • Destrcuction of habitats and ecosystems


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