Cellular respiration
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CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Cellular Respiration - The chemical breakdown of glucose (usually uses oxygen) to release energy. The energy released is used to make ATP. EQUATION FOR CELLULAR RESPIRATION C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP. G LYCOLYSIS.

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

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Cellular respiration

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

  • Cellular Respiration - The chemical breakdown of glucose (usually uses oxygen) to release energy.

  • The energy released is used to make ATP.

  • EQUATION FOR CELLULAR RESPIRATION

    C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP


G lycolysis

G LYCOLYSIS

  • Glycolysis – the production of ATP by changing glucose to 2 molecules of pyruvic acid.

  • Occurs in the cytoplasm.

  • Does not require oxygen so is considered anaerobic.

  • 4 ATP’s are produced but two are used during the process

  • NET GAIN of 2 ATP’s


Glycolysis continued

GLYCOLYSIS CONTINUED

  • Glucose is split into two molecules of PGAL.

  • Each molecule of PGAL then loses hydrogen atoms and becomes a molecule of pyruvic acid

  • Hydrogen atoms are given off during the formation of pyruvic acid.

  • The hydrogen atoms are bonded to NAD+ forming NADH.

  • NOTE: two NADH are produced because you have two pyruvic acids.

  • This entire process requires the energy from 2 ATP’s (to split glucose into PGAL) but produces 4 ATP molecules.

  • Net GAIN of 2 ATP’s


Glycolysis continued1

GLYCOLYSIS CONTINUED

  • GLUCOSE

  • / \

  • PGAL PGAL

    | |

  • NAD+ H H NAD+

  • NADH NADH

  • Pyruvic Acid Pyruvic Acid

  • Requires energy from 2 ATP molecules for the process but 4 ATP molecules are produced.

  • There is a net gain of 2 ATP molecules


Breakdown of pyruvic acid

BREAKDOWN OF PYRUVIC ACID

  • Pyruvic acid is changed to a two carbon substance called acetic acid (or an acetyl group) by removing carbon dioxide and a hydrogen ion.

  • The acetyl (or acetic acid) group is bonded to coenzyme A forming acetyl Co-A.

  • The hydrogen removed from pyruvic acid along with the eletrons will bond to NAD+ and forms NADH.

  • The CO2 is released from the organism

  • NOTE: Since you have two pyruvic acid molecules you will have 2 NADH produced.


Cellular respiration

PYRUVIC ACID PYRUVIC ACID

Co2 co2

NAD+HHNAD+

NADH NADH

ACETYL GROUP/ACETIC ACIDACETYL GROUP/ACETIC ACID


Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle

KREBS CYCLE OR CITRIC ACID CYCLE

  • Named after Hans Krebs

  • Occurs in the Mitochondrion of a cell.


Kreb s cycle continued

KREB’S CYCLE CONTINUED

  • Acetyl coenzyme A transfers the acetyl group to a 4 carbon compound (called oxaloacetic acid). This forms a 6 carbon substance called citric acid (hence the name citric acid cycle.)

  • Coenzyme A leaves the cycle to pick up another acetyl group.


3 krebs cycle citric acid cycle

1 Acetyl CoA (2C) - acetyl group

OAA (4C)

Oxaloacetic acid

Citric acid (6C)

Krebs

Cycle

(one turn)

3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)


Kreb s cycle continued1

KREB’S CYCLE CONTINUED

  • The 6 carbon citric acid has two carbon atoms removed by enzymes (in the form of carbon dioxide) – occurs in two stages. Go to a five carbon then to a 4 carbon substance.


3 krebs cycle citric acid cycle1

1 Acetyl CoA (2C) – acetyl group

OAA (4C)

Citric acid (6C)

Krebs

Cycle

2 CO2

(one turn)

3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)


Kreb s or citric acid cycle continued

KREB’S OR CITRIC ACID CYCLE (CONTINUED)

  • Each time the Kreb’s (Citric Acid Cycle) occurs hydrogen atoms go to coenzymes. Hydrogen atoms go to NAD+ forming 3 NADH; hydrogen goes to coenzyme FAD forming 1 molecule of FADH2

  • REMEMBER there are two acetyl Co A’s (each from the two pyruvic acid molecules) so the process happens twice. TOTAL OF 6NADH produced and 2 FADH2

  • Produce ATP for the citric acid cycle – one ATP for each of the two acetyl Co-A molecules

  • so a total of 2 ATP’s.


3 krebs cycle citric acid cycle2

1 Acetyl CoA (2C) – acetyl group

OAA (4C)

Citric acid (6C)

Krebs

Cycle

2 CO2

FADH2

(one turn)

3 NAD+

FAD

3 NADH

ATP

ADP +

P

3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)


Cellular respiration

  • The original 4 carbon substance (oxaloacetic acid) can now unite with another acetyl group and start the Kreb’s cycle over again.


3 krebs cycle citric acid cycle3

2 Acetyl CoA (2C)

Citric acid (6C)

OAA (4C)

Oxaloacetic acid

Krebs

Cycle

4 CO2

2 FADH2

(two turns)

6 NAD+

2 FAD

6 NADH

2 ATP

2 ADP +

P

3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)


Do not copy here is the real story

DO NOT COPY – Here is the “Real Story”


Electron transport chain

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

  • Most of the energy from the breakdown of glucose is still in the electrons carried by NADH and FADH2.

  • The molecules of the electron transport chain are located in the inner cristae membrane of the mitochondrion and are electron carriers.


Electron transport chain continued

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (CONTINUED)

  • As the hydrogen atoms (or electrons) are passed down the electron transport chain they lose energy.

  • The energy lost is used to produce ATP.

  • The role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to accept the hydrogen at the end of the transport chain. This will produce water molecules at the end of the chain.


Electron transport chain continued1

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (CONTINUED)

  • 10 NADH X 3 ATP = 30 ATP

  • 2 FADH2 X 2 ATP = 4 ATP

  • TOTAL ATP FOR ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN = 34


Grand total of atp produced by aerobic breakdown of 1 glucose molecule

Grand total of ATP produced by aerobic breakdown of 1 Glucose molecule:

  • GLYCOLYSIS2 ATP

  • KREB’S CYCLE 2 ATP

  • ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN 34 ATP

    ****TOTAL38 ATP

  • ****HOWEVER, it requires energy to transport the 2 NADH made during glycolysis into the mitochondria so we subtract 2 ATP from our total.

  • ****The true total ATP production is 36 ATP per one glucose molecule.


Fermentation

FERMENTATION

  • Occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell.

  • Anaerobic process – does not use oxygen.

  • The breakdown of glucose in which organic substances (remember oxygen is INORGANIC) are the final electron acceptor.

  • Fermentation only produces a net gain of 2 ATP (compared to 36 in cellular respiration.)


Fermentation continued

FERMENTATION (CONTINUED)

  • The first part of fermentation is GLYCOLYSIS.

  • After pyruvic acid is made during glycolysis there are two types of fermenation depending on the organism:

  • 1. Alcoholic Fermentation – yeast do this process.

  • 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation – many organisms – including humans


Alcoholic fermentation

ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

  • Anaerobic

  • The conversion of pyruvic acid (made during glycolysis) to ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.

  • Most of the energy is still in the ethyl alcohol – makes it a vital fuel.

  • When yeast go through fermentation the carbon dioxide given off makes bread dough rise.


Lactic acid fermentation

Lactic Acid Fermentation

  • Anaerobic

  • Conversion of pyruvic acid (from glycolysis) to lactic acid

  • Important in the making of dairy products such as cheese, buttermilk, and yogurt.

  • Humans can do this when oxygen levels are low and energy is required. The build up of lactic acid in the muscles produces muscle fatigue and a burning sensation.

  • To recover – return to aerobic respiration using oxygen.

  • The lactic acid will be carried by the blood to the liver and changed to glucose.


Chloroplasts and mitochondria

CHLOROPLASTS AND MITOCHONDRIA

CHARACTERISITCS IN COMMON

  • 1. BOUNDED BY A DOUBLE MEMBRANE2. INNER MEMBRANE FOLDS WITHIN THE STRUCTURE

  • 3. Both contain DNA


Chloroplasts and mitochondria1

CHLOROPLASTS AND MITOCHONDRIA

  • 1. SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR ATP PRODUCTION.        a. CHLOROPLASTS - SUN        b. MITOCHONDRIA - CHEMICAL BONDS

  • DIFFERENCES

  • 2. COLOR        a. CHLOROPLASTS - GREEN        b. MITOCHONDRIA - COLORLESS3. SIZE        CHLOROPLASTS LARGER AND MORE IRREGULAR IN SHAPE4. FUNCTION       a. CHLOROPLASTS - PHOTOSYNTHESIS (PRODUCTION OF CARBOHYDRATES)

  •        b. MITOCHONDRIA - RESPIRATION

    (BREAKDOWN OF CARBOHYDRATES)


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