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Ida Bastiaens Colin Clarke Bok-gyo Jeong (Jonathan) . Week One: Development Studies. - Barbara Ward, The Rich Nations and the Poor Nations - Emerson, From Empire to Nation. Golden oldies. Context of the Cold War Emphasis on income gap b/t North and South Development as Modernization

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ida bastiaens colin clarke bok gyo jeong jonathan
Ida Bastiaens

Colin Clarke

Bok-gyo Jeong (Jonathan)

Week One: Development Studies

barbara ward the rich nations and the poor nations

Context of the Cold War

Emphasis on income gap b/t North and South

Development as Modernization

Savings (foreign and domestic) and Agricultural Reform key to Economic Growth

Role of Colonialization in bringing modern ideas, technology, infrastructure

LDCs have challenge of CHANGE and CHOICE

Barbara Ward, The Rich Nations and the Poor Nations
barbara ward the rich nations and the poor nations1

“Chief point that distinguishes tribal and traditional society is that all the internal impulses to modernization have been lacking” (51).

  • Four Revolutions:
    • Biological
    • Material
    • Equality
    • Science and Saving
Barbara Ward, The Rich Nations and the Poor Nations
emerson 1960 from empire to nation

Main themes:

    • The prospect of the world after imperialism
    • The full assertion of nationalist claims in Asia and Africa
  • An expansion of nationalism to the non-Western world.
    • Ceylon’s progress to independence
    • Nationalist effect: i) an expansion of a popular and less Westernized political base ii) independent and leftward foreign policy from the Western influence, and iii) a division and conflicts in the original society
  • Balance between traditional ways of life and the desire for the modern world
    • “traditionalist appeals” (p. 367) : national goals and values drawn from the past/ inertia and conservatism/ appeals to the traditionally minded rural and urban masses/ Gandhi as a traditionalist and religious leader
    • “Western oriented nationalist” (p.369): the surge of the more dynamic modernist force/ modern minded Nehru
Emerson (1960), From Empire to Nation
emerson 1960 from empire to nation continued

The appeal of Communism in economic development

    • A clash between democratic machines and the pressures of economic development
    • A set of blueprints how the advanced countries can be overtaken
    • The achievement of Soviet Union and China without surrender to the capitalist
    • The attraction of Communism to the rising Asian and African countries: the failure of non-Communist programs in such countries as India, Indonesia, Egypt, and Ghana made the Communism as alternative
  • Disenchantment of Europe with nationalism
    • Arnold Toynbee: “disastrous corruption poisoning the political life of modern Western society” (p. 378)
    • Evil potentialities of nationalism: Fascism, Nazism, and Japan’s imperialism
Emerson (1960), From Empire to Nation (Continued)
emerson 1960 from empire to nation continued1

Colonialism as the source or the condition for nationalism

    • Created the conditions that made nationalism possible
    • Made it appropriate response for the natives regain their self-esteem
    • Imperial arrogance and racial discrimination of Western imperialists
  • The virtues of nationalism in Asia and Africa
    • It constitutes a potential widening of social and political horizons of people
    • The open road to world peace
    • Sun Yat-sen: “cosmopolitanism growing out of nationalism” (p. 388)
  • “A wide-open gamble” : whether freedom and equality will be turned toward the end of world integration (p. 396)
Emerson (1960), From Empire to Nation (Continued)
emerson 1960 from empire to nation continued2

Acts of faith for Western aid

    • Feasibility and desirability of development of a Western variety
    • Economic benefits: Benefit the trade and investment of the world
    • Political benefits or consequences of development
      • Stability: Laying of stable foundations for unstable society
      • Blocking Communist overturn: Curbing the appeal of communism through i) winning of the good will of the non-Western peoples by the provision of aid and ii) eliminating the poverty and frustration which might otherwise lead countries into Communist camp
      • Promoting peace: Eliminating dangerous threats to the peace

Cf. Skeptical view: Great wars “within the fraternity of the rich and developed countries” (p. 415)/ Global clash between blocs of Washington and Moscow/ the coexistence of rich and poverty-stricken peoples in Asia and Africa is incompatible with peace

Emerson (1960), From Empire to Nation (Continued)
emerson 1960 from empire to nation continued3

International community: merits and demerits

    • Merits:

i) An organized international society guarantee peace

ii) supervise the orderly liquidation of colonialism

iii) provide for the pooling of resources to promote economic and social progress

    • Demerits:

i) The danger of renewed subordination to the imperial West

ii) The danger of satellite status in the Communist orbit

Emerson (1960), From Empire to Nation (Continued)

Concepts of development

    • What is development?
    • Historical context
    • Underlying assumptions and themes
  • Evolution of development theory
  • Strategies of development
    • Goals and actions to promote development
  • Process of development
    • Policy/political process of development
    • Economic
    • Social
    • Environmental
martinussen ch 1 and 3

Foundations of theories very important

    • Traditional, economic, social, political structures in LDCs and DCs
  • Development Concept, Theory, Strategy
    • Concept: what development is
    • Theory: how objectives are promoted, casuality
    • Strategy: actions used to promote objectives
  • Initial Situation  development process  development objective
    • Process influence by development strategy
  • Conceptions of Development
    • Economic growth, human development, modernization, dependency, dialectical transformation, capacity building, sustainable development, security, history
Martinussen (ch. 1 and 3)
isbister ch 1

LDCs are rapidly changing, but not necessarily for the better

  • Plight of LDCs is economic, social, and political
  • A “betrayal of the promise of progress” by:
    • Leaders of nationalist movements
      • Freedom as key to progress
      • Prosperity and dignity after colonialization
    • Leaders of rich world
      • DC policies not helpful, harmful
      • Have a responsibility to inequities
Isbister (ch. 1)
turner and hulme 1997 governance administration development ch 1 and 3

Main topic

    • Exploring the complex and diverse context of development and public sector organizations
    • How public sector organizations influence development policies and programmes
    • Critical review on the dominant ideology of ‘public-bad, private-good’
  • Underlying assumptions and themes
    • Development is not neutral or value-free phenomena
    • The importance of organizational environment
    • The importance of political considerations in administrative analysis and practice
Turner and Hulme (1997), Governance, Administration & Development (ch. 1 and 3)
turner and hulme 1997 continued

Contemporary themes in development administration

    • Limited government’s capacity
    • Pluralistic properties of public administration
    • Participation as an important component
    • Social context
    • Uncertainties and contingencies
    • Renewed pressure for a greater productivity and responsiveness of government
  • Policy Process
    • Third World Policy process
      • society centered (social class analysis, pluralism, and public choice)
      • state centered (rational actor, bureaucratic politics, and state interests)
    • Participation in the policy making process
    • Politics of implementation
      • Rejection of the linear model of policy reform
      • Suggestion of the interactive model of policy implementation
Turner and Hulme (1997) (Continued)
staudt 1991 managing development ch 1

Integrate development into the concept of management

  • Internationalize studies of public administration and politics
  • Development management
    • “Development management focus moves beyond politics and policy-making into organization for action.” (p.1)
    • Putting policies into practice
  • Stressing political context and process
  • Development as a collective endeavor
Staudt (1991), Managing Development (ch. 1)
what is political economy a study of social theory and underdevelopment staniland

Analyzes the connection between politics and economics and how it works

Examines the moral, political, and explanatory critiques of social science

Recognizes the importance of non-economic factors

What is Political Economy? A Study of Social Theory and Underdevelopment (Staniland)
the rise and fall of development theory leys

Traces the evolution of development theory and comments on the impact of figures including J.M. Keynes, Marx, and Hegel

Highlights the tug of war between modernization theory and dependency theory

What is the role of capitalism in development?

The Rise and Fall of Development Theory (Leys)

Martinussen, John. Society, State and Market: A Guide to Competing Theories of Development. (London: Zed Press, 1997). ch 1,3

Turner, Mark and David Hulme. Governance, Administration and Development: Makingthe State Work. (West Hartford: Kumarian, 1997). ch 1,3

Staudt, Kathleen. Managing Development: State, Society and International Contexts. (Newbury Park: Sage, 1991). ch 1

IsbisterJohn. Promises not Kept: The Betrayal of Social Change in the Third World. (West Hartford: Kumarian, 1993). ch 1

Staniland, Martin. What is Political Economy? A Study of Social Theory and Underdevelopment. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985). ch 1-2

Leys, Colin. The Rise and Fall of Development Theory. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996). ch 1,9

Ward, Barbara, The Rich Nations and the Poor Nations, ch 2,4,5

Emerson, From Empire to Nation, ch 18-20.