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SOCIAL CLASS and STRATIFICATION. Stratification system: Rank some kinds of people as more deserving than others, or "...all animals are equal here, but some are more equal than others." [G,Orwell, Animal Farm ]. A. Sociology\'s Gift: An Introduction. 1. A universal?

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social class and stratification
SOCIAL CLASS and STRATIFICATION
  • Stratification system: Rank some kinds of people as more deserving than others, or "...all animals are equal here, but some are more equal than others." [G,Orwell, Animal Farm]
a sociology s gift an introduction
A. Sociology\'s Gift: An Introduction
  • 1. A universal?
  • 2. Study consequences of ranking
3 life chances the fate one may expect in society
3. Life chances: The fate one may expect in society
  • a. Age at marriage and birth of first child
  • b. Chances of divorce, separation or desertion
  • c. Chance of voting
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d. Level of political awareness and involvement
  • e. How long you will live & how healthy you will be
  • f. Moral worth in the E. R.
  • g. Summary: Life chances: The fate on may expect in society
4 social class reflects desirables
4. Social class reflects desirables
  • a. Wealth
  • b. Power
    • 1.Personal
    • 2.Social
  • c. Prestige
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e. People in different levels or strata of a hierarchy can claim or are given differing amounts of power, prestige and property.
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a.Provides identity
  • b.Provides evaluation: "What\'s your major?"
  • c.Provides a structure to:
      • 1. categorize
      • 2. aspire within
b how do we measure social class
B.How do we measure social class
  • 1. Objective
    • a. Advantage:
      • 1. Simple and cheap
    • b. Disadvantage:
      • 1. Social class is more
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2.Subjective or Self-Placement
    • a. Advantage:
      • 1. Usable with large units
    • b. Disadvantage:
      • 1. People deny class exists
      • 2. Identification vs. Aspiration
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3. What Class do you identify with: Which would you say you belong to?
    • Lower Class?
    • Lower Middle Class?
    • Middle Class?
    • Upper Middle Class?
    • Upper Class?
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Most identify themselves as Middle Class
  • Lower or Upper Class 6%
  • Working Class 24%
  • Upper Middle or Middle Class 69%
  • No Opinion 1%
  • Source Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll, Sept. 8-10, 2000, 1,216 adults. From New York Times, Oct. 29, 2000 Sec 4, p. 5
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3.Reputational
    • a. Advantage:
      • 1. Socio-metric patterns
    • b. Disadvantage:
      • 1. Size Limitation
      • 2. Dimensions of social class differ
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a. A = Differential degrees of functional importance
  • b. B = Differential amounts of talent and training
  • c. C = Talent and training are scarce
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d. D = Societies exhibit stratification
  • e. E = Mobility of talented and trained into highly rewarded positions
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f. Complex economies involve division of labor with some tasks being considered more important than others and rewards reflect this differential importance or inequality in reward.
2 the 1948 modification
2. The 1948 Modification
  • a.Condition E (above) describes analytically pure achievement order (meritocracy or open society)
  • b.Condition E interfered with by status ascription
  • c.Cause of status ascription: the Family (Recall Scott’s article)
3 basic assumptions
3. Basic Assumptions
  • a.Functional importance and talent and training
  • b.Great functional importance and great reward, unless interfered with by:
      • 1. ascription
      • 2. power
4 best parts
4.Best Parts
  • a.Unequal rewards and mobility
  • b.Family and ascription
  • c.Differential scarcity and stratification
d tumin s criticisms 1953 henslin p 239
D.Tumin\'s Criticisms, 1953 [Henslin p 239]
  • 1.Justifies "status quo"
  • 2.No search for talent and ascription
  • 3.More than money:
    • a. intrinsic job satisfaction
    • b. social service motivation
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4.No sacrifice for training
  • 5.Unequal resources
  • 6.Morally toned rationalization
  • 7.Inequality creates hostility, suspicion and conflict
  • 8.Greatest rewards for conformity
herbert gans the uses of poverty the poor pay all or the functions of the poor
Herbert Gans, “The Uses of Poverty: The Poor Pay All”or the functions of the poor
  • 1. Do the dirty work
  • 2.Low wages subsidize activities of affluent
  • 3. Creates jobs for professionals
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4.Buy discards and services of incompetents
  • 5.Deviants serve to uphold norms
  • 6.Vicarious participation in deviance
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7.Provide cultural artifacts to be adopted
  • 8.Guarantee status of the not poor
  • 9.Aid upward mobility of those just above
  • 10.Provide a place for "good deeds"
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11.Absorb cost of social change
  • 12.Stabilize political process, captive
  • 13.Laissez faire ideology requires moral deviance, e.g. the lazy,spendthrift,dishonest and promiscuous
age and gender stratification
Age and Gender Stratification
  • Social Hierarchy: "...people who differ in their ascribed and achieved traits are evaluated differently."
  • Ranked statuses built on definitions of social worth is transformed into a hierarchy of control over societal resources
a age and gender are ascribed characteristics
A. Age and Gender are ascribed characteristics
  • 1. Both have biological basis
    • a. Aging process: Changes in vital capacity, morbidity and mortality
    • b. Sex differences: Reproductive organs, facial hair, body mass
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2. Age Stratification: Structured inequality created on the basis of age
    • a. Transitional status-Rites of Passage
    • b. Command over valued resources
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3. Gender Stratification: Power, prestige and property are unequally distributed on the basis of sex [Henslin p 290]
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4. Both are constructed
    • a. Gender as being appropriately feminine or masculine behaviors
    • b. Age norms socially constructed expectations
b age and gender interact with other hierarchies
B. Age and Gender interact with other hierarchies
  • 1. Age and Gender interact with religion, race and ethnicity
  • 2. Age and Gender interact with family, education, occupation, political and income hierarchies
3 gender pay gap by education
3. Gender Pay Gap by Education

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Copyright 1999 Allyn & Bacon

c process of constructive stratification social consequences
C. Process of Constructive Stratification & Social Consequences
  • 1. Race, Ethnicity and Religion
  • 2. Social Class [achieved and ascribed]
  • 3. Age
  • 4. Gender
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