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SOCIAL CLASS and STRATIFICATION. Stratification system: Rank some kinds of people as more deserving than others, or "...all animals are equal here, but some are more equal than others." [G,Orwell, Animal Farm ]. A. Sociology's Gift: An Introduction. 1. A universal?

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SOCIAL CLASS and STRATIFICATION

  • Stratification system: Rank some kinds of people as more deserving than others, or "...all animals are equal here, but some are more equal than others." [G,Orwell, Animal Farm]


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A. Sociology's Gift: An Introduction

  • 1. A universal?

  • 2. Study consequences of ranking


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3. Life chances: The fate one may expect in society

  • a. Age at marriage and birth of first child

  • b. Chances of divorce, separation or desertion

  • c. Chance of voting


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4. Social class reflects desirables

  • a. Wealth

  • b. Power

    • 1.Personal

    • 2.Social

  • c. Prestige



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5.Everyday social class ranking can claim or are given differing amounts of power, prestige and property.


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+ can claim or are given differing amounts of power, prestige and property.

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TIME


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+ can claim or are given differing amounts of power, prestige and property.

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TIME


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+ can claim or are given differing amounts of power, prestige and property.

-

TIME


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+ can claim or are given differing amounts of power, prestige and property.

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TIME


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  • a.Provides identity can claim or are given differing amounts of power, prestige and property.

  • b.Provides evaluation: "What's your major?"

  • c.Provides a structure to:

    • 1. categorize

    • 2. aspire within


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B.How do we measure social class can claim or are given differing amounts of power, prestige and property.

  • 1. Objective

    • a. Advantage:

      • 1. Simple and cheap

    • b. Disadvantage:

      • 1. Social class is more


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  • 2.Subjective or Self-Placement can claim or are given differing amounts of power, prestige and property.

    • a. Advantage:

      • 1. Usable with large units

    • b. Disadvantage:

      • 1. People deny class exists

      • 2. Identification vs. Aspiration


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  • Most identify themselves as Middle Class belong to?

  • Lower or Upper Class 6%

  • Working Class 24%

  • Upper Middle or Middle Class 69%

  • No Opinion 1%

  • Source Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll, Sept. 8-10, 2000, 1,216 adults. From New York Times, Oct. 29, 2000 Sec 4, p. 5


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  • 3.Reputational belong to?

    • a. Advantage:

      • 1. Socio-metric patterns

    • b. Disadvantage:

      • 1. Size Limitation

      • 2. Dimensions of social class differ




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2. tasks being considered more important than others and rewards reflect this differential importance or inequality in reward.The 1948 Modification

  • a.Condition E (above) describes analytically pure achievement order (meritocracy or open society)

  • b.Condition E interfered with by status ascription

  • c.Cause of status ascription: the Family (Recall Scott’s article)


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3. Basic Assumptions tasks being considered more important than others and rewards reflect this differential importance or inequality in reward.

  • a.Functional importance and talent and training

  • b.Great functional importance and great reward, unless interfered with by:

    • 1. ascription

    • 2. power


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4.Best Parts tasks being considered more important than others and rewards reflect this differential importance or inequality in reward.

  • a.Unequal rewards and mobility

  • b.Family and ascription

  • c.Differential scarcity and stratification


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D.Tumin's Criticisms, 1953 tasks being considered more important than others and rewards reflect this differential importance or inequality in reward.[Henslin p 239]

  • 1.Justifies "status quo"

  • 2.No search for talent and ascription

  • 3.More than money:

    • a. intrinsic job satisfaction

    • b. social service motivation


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  • 4.No sacrifice for training tasks being considered more important than others and rewards reflect this differential importance or inequality in reward.

  • 5.Unequal resources

  • 6.Morally toned rationalization

  • 7.Inequality creates hostility, suspicion and conflict

  • 8.Greatest rewards for conformity


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E.Summary tasks being considered more important than others and rewards reflect this differential importance or inequality in reward.


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Herbert Gans, tasks being considered more important than others and rewards reflect this differential importance or inequality in reward.“The Uses of Poverty: The Poor Pay All”or the functions of the poor

  • 1. Do the dirty work

  • 2.Low wages subsidize activities of affluent

  • 3. Creates jobs for professionals


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  • 4.Buy discards and services of incompetents tasks being considered more important than others and rewards reflect this differential importance or inequality in reward.

  • 5.Deviants serve to uphold norms

  • 6.Vicarious participation in deviance


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  • 7.Provide cultural artifacts to be adopted tasks being considered more important than others and rewards reflect this differential importance or inequality in reward.

  • 8.Guarantee status of the not poor

  • 9.Aid upward mobility of those just above

  • 10.Provide a place for "good deeds"


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  • 11.Absorb cost of social change tasks being considered more important than others and rewards reflect this differential importance or inequality in reward.

  • 12.Stabilize political process, captive

  • 13.Laissez faire ideology requires moral deviance, e.g. the lazy,spendthrift,dishonest and promiscuous


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Age and Gender Stratification tasks being considered more important than others and rewards reflect this differential importance or inequality in reward.

  • Social Hierarchy: "...people who differ in their ascribed and achieved traits are evaluated differently."

  • Ranked statuses built on definitions of social worth is transformed into a hierarchy of control over societal resources


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A. Age and Gender are ascribed characteristics tasks being considered more important than others and rewards reflect this differential importance or inequality in reward.

  • 1. Both have biological basis

    • a. Aging process: Changes in vital capacity, morbidity and mortality

    • b. Sex differences: Reproductive organs, facial hair, body mass


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  • 4. Both are constructed unequally distributed on the basis of sex

    • a. Gender as being appropriately feminine or masculine behaviors

    • b. Age norms socially constructed expectations


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B. Age and Gender interact with other hierarchies unequally distributed on the basis of sex

  • 1. Age and Gender interact with religion, race and ethnicity

  • 2. Age and Gender interact with family, education, occupation, political and income hierarchies


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3. Gender Pay Gap by Education unequally distributed on the basis of sex

91%

58%

53%

60%

56%

56%

51%

Copyright 1999 Allyn & Bacon


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C. Process of Constructive Stratification & Social Consequences

  • 1. Race, Ethnicity and Religion

  • 2. Social Class [achieved and ascribed]

  • 3. Age

  • 4. Gender


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D. Summary Consequences


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