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BAQ 2006 13–15 Dec 06, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Singapore’s Experience in Managing a Sustainable, Integrated Transport System. Loh Chow Kuang Deputy Director, LTA Academy Land Transport Authority, Singapore Website: Email: Overview.

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Singapore s experience in managing a sustainable integrated transport system l.jpg

BAQ 2006

13–15 Dec 06, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Singapore’s Experience in Managing a Sustainable, Integrated Transport System

Loh Chow Kuang

Deputy Director, LTA Academy

Land Transport Authority, Singapore

Website: Email:

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Key Challenges

Current Achievements

Integrated Approach

Sustainable Strategies

New Initiatives


Singapore l.jpg

23 km

42 km

  • Labour Force - 2.37 mil

  • Per Capital GDP- $44,666



  • Land Area - 699 km2

  • Population - 4.4 mil

  • Pop Density - 6222/ km2

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Growing Travel Demand






















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Singapore in 1970

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Singapore Today

A First World City – Vibrant, Efficient, Safe, Clean, Green and Liveable

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Car Population - 438,000


Efficient Road System

Road Network- 3,200 km

Expressway Network- 150 km

Vehicle Population - 755,000

Cars/1000 residents - 117

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Average speed within city centre during AM Peak

Source: World Cities Research, 2005

Smooth Flowing Roads> 95% of expressways and major arterial roads during peaks are congestion-free

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High-Quality Public Transport

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Efficient and Affordable Public Transport

>85% journeys on mass public transport

take < 45 min during the A.M. Peak

More than 90% of journeys completed within an hour

85% of journeys completed in <45min

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Affordable Public Transport Fares- Without Direct Operating Subsidies

  • Bus/Train Fares among the lowest in the world

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High PT Mode Share

AM Peak

Whole Day



Public Transport: Bus, MRT, Taxi, Co Bus

Source: HIS 2004

Private Transport: Cars, Motorcycle

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88% (320 days)


Clean Environment

Pollutant Standard Index


In 2005

12% (45 days)




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Optimise Road Network

Sustainable, Integrated Approach

  • Landuse

  • Long-term Urban Planning, Integration of Developments


Integrated Landuse/Transport Planning

Vehicle Ownership Restraint

Develop/Expand Rapid Transit

Improve Bus Services

Vehicle Usage Restraint

Promote Public Transport

Traffic Management/ITS

Integrate Bus/Rail Network & Ticketing

Enhance Safety & Accessibility

Enhance Commuter Accessibility

Judiciously Expand Road Network

Conducive Financing and Industry Framework

  • Environment

  • Emission Standards, Cleaner Fuels, Enforcement,

  • Green Vehicles, Education

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Transport Management Framework

Ministry of Transport

4 Statutory Boards

Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS)

Public Transport Council


Maritime & Port Authority (MPA)

Overall sea transport management

Overall land transport planning, development & management

- LTA Act

- Rapid Transit Sys Act

- Street Works Act

- Road Traffic Act

Overall air transport management

Regulates bus, ticket payment services and public transport fares

-Public Transport Council Act

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One-Stop National Agency that:

  • Formulates policies and strategies;

  • Plans road & rapid transit networks to meet future travel demand;

  • Develops road & rail infrastructure and manages the design & construction of projects;

  • Manages traffic and maintains road structures & facilities; and

  • Regulates public transport services and vehicles.

    ~ 3500 staff (incl 1200 professionals)









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Ministry of National Development

Ministry of Environment and Water Resources

- Overall urban planning

Housing and Development Board

- Overall environment protection and public health management

- Develop public housing


Jurong Town Corp

National Parks Board

Singapore Land Authority




Holistic Management

Ministry of Transport


- Overall land transport planning, development & management

Public Transport Council (PTC)

- Regulate bus and ticketing services, and public transport fares

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Long-term Planning for Sustainability

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Public Transport-Centric Development

  • Centralisation – Denser, Higher

  • Reduce car dependency

  • Favour public transport

  • Decentralisation – Closer to home

  • Reduce the need to travel

  • Facilitate peak spreading

  • Integration - Intensification

  • along rail corridors

  • One-stop convenience

  • Seamless journey

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High-density/High-rise Residential Towns

Major Town


  • No of major towns - 25



  • % of population - 85%

  • Dwelling units/town - 20,000-70,000

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Integrated Landuse/Transport Planning

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Computer Transport Modelling

  • Provides travel demand forecasts and traffic simulation for infrastructure planning, policy studies and traffic management schemes

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Integration with Developments

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Seamless Integration

– Dhoby Ghaut Interchange

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Make Public Transport a Choice Mode

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Public Transport Policy Framework

  • Infrastructural & train capital costs borne by Government

  • No operating subsidies given

  • Bus operators enjoy certain tax concessions

  • Operators are self-sustaining/profitable

  • Bus operators given territorial monopolies in return for their Universal Service Obligation (USO)

  • Bus/train fares regulated (by Public Transport Council)

  • Service standards of bus/train/taxi operators are regulated

  • Taxi industry has been liberalised (fares & new entrants)

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Expand Rapid Transit Network

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Evaluation of Infrastructure Investments

2 Criteria :

Economic Viability

Benefits  Costs

Financial Viability

Operating Revenue  Operating Costs

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New Rail Transit Lines

  • Currently > 40 km of rail lines are under construction

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Public Transport Improvements

  • Stringent Quality of Service standards with regulate audits

  • Integrated smartcard ticketing system

  • Bus priority schemes (bus lanes, etc)

  • Promote innovation and competition

  • Develop lifestyle hubs at MRT stations

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Public Transport Improvements (Cont)

  • Air-conditioned bus interchanges

  • Covered linkways for commuters

  • Low-floor/Wheelchair accessible buses

  • Express/innovative bus services

  • PT Security systems

  • Advanced telematics

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Managing Demand for Road Usage

Road Usage


High Upfront Cost

Recurrent Usage Cost

- Custom Duty (20%)

- Additional Registration Fee


- COE Premium

  • Road Pricing

  • Petrol Duty

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Ownership Control - Vehicle Quota System

  • Implemented in 1990 to regulate vehicle population

  • Cap annual vehicle growth rate to < 3% (vs about 7% prior to implementation)

  • Certificate of Entitlement (COE) for all vehicle purchases - valid for 10 years (8 years for taxis)

  • Open e-biding (twice a month), 5 vehicle categories

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Weekend/Off-peak Car Scheme

Introduced in May 1991/1994 to allow more people to own cars at a lower cost without contributing to traffic congestion.

Owners enjoy up-front tax rebates of up to $17,000 and a discount of $800 on annual road tax (min $50).

Free use on Sundays and Public Holidays, 7.00 pm to 7.00 am on weekdays; and from 3.00 pm on Saturdays and the eve of Public Holidays.

$20 day licence required outside the above periods.

Car Sharing Scheme

Individual/Corporate membership

3 private operators

> 50 points in housing estates, CBD, etc

Intelligent car access system

Time and distance-based charges

Innovative ‘Part-time’ Car Schemes

Red No Plate

Weekend/Off-peak Car

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Usage Restraint - Road Pricing

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ERP System

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ERP Coverage

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Effect of ALS / ERP

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More on ERP in Singapore

SW30: Congestion Charging & Road Pricing

on 15 Dec 06

at 1300-1500 h

at Bromo 2

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Optimise Road Network

  • Maximise capacity by leveraging on technology

  • Computerised traffic signal system (GLIDE)

  • ITS incident management and real-time traffic information (EMAS, J-eye, Traffic Scan)

  • Judiciously expand road network to meet constrained demand

  • 8% increase in lane-km over last 10 years vs 17% vehicle growth

  • Additional 138 lane-km by 2010 (new expressway/roads, road extension and widening)

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New Underground Expressway

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Enhancing Pedestrian Accessibility

  • Implement barrier-free accessibility for road and road-related facilities

  • Extend provision of commuter facilities

    • Pedestrian overhead bridges, pedestrian crossings, covered linkways

  • Pedestrianisation of streets

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Enhancing Road Safety

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Environmental Sustainability

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Sharing with the World

Delegates from some 50 countries worldwide have visited LTA

> 70 delegations visited LTA in 2005

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Sharing with the World

  • A dedicated Division of Land Transport Authority (LTA)

  • A one-stop focal point for governments, organisations and professionals around the world to:

    • tap Singapore’s know-how and

    • exchange best practices in land transport management and development

  • Key training areas:

    • Policy and Planning

    • Public Transport Management

    • Traffic and Road Management

    • Rail Transit Development & Systems

    • Vehicle Licensing and Standards

    • Delivered by Senior LTA Staff who are the Domain Experts

Best Practices Exhibit

Booth 47

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  • Holistic and visionary approach to urban development, transport and environment management

  • Long-term planning for sustainability

  • Public transport-centric and Integrated developments

  • Integration of landuse and transport planning

  • Prudent policies that promote public transport (esp rail), demand management and environmental sustainability

  • Innovative strategies & effective implementation

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Thank You

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